being more generally followed than it is. In physique, and in the virtues-of chastity, temperance and industry they are the equals of many white communities.
A permanent reservation should be set aside for the Indians of this agency, and, with proper assistance they would doubtless in a few years become entirely self-sustaining. In the chapter of this report containing specific recommendations for legislation to be had by Congress at its approaching session, will be found the text of an agreement between these bands and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, by which the Indians relinquish all their claims on account of lands formerly held by them, and of which they were dispossessed without their consent, and the Government on its part confirms to them the tract now in fact occupied by them. Effect should be given to this agreement by Congress at as early date as practicable. The claims relinquished have been long before Congress, and may or may not have merit, a question not here considered; but it is equally for the interest of the Government and of the Indians that these bands should be put as early as practicable in the way of self-support, a result which will be greatly forwarded by confirming to them a permanent home. But one school is in operation, with an attendance of 18 scholars. These Indians have no annuities, but an annual appropriation of $50,000 has for several years been made for their benefit. This money is expended for goods and agricultural implements, and for assistance and instruction in farming, &c.
The tribes residing in Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho are divided as follows: in Dakota, about 28,000; Montana, 30,000; Wyoming, 2,000; and Idaho, 5,000. The present temporary location of the Red Cloud agency has, however, drawn just within the limits of Wyoming a body of Indians varying from 8,000 to 9,000. who are here, and usually, reckoned as belonging in Dakota.
The Indians within the limits of Dakota Territory are the Sioux, the Poncas, and the Arickarees, Gros Ventres, and Mandans.
Sioux.There are, probably, including those at the Red Cloud agency, at present temporarily located in Wyoming, about 25,000 Sioux under the care of Government at eight different agencies.
The Yankton Sioux, numbering about 2,000, are ]ocated in the extreme southern part of the Territory, on the east side of the Missouri, about fifty miles from the town of Yankton, upon a reservation of 400,000 acres, nearly all rolling prairie, set apart for them by treaty of 1858, out of the tract then ceded by them to the United States. They have not been much inclined to work, and although there is good land within their reservation, they are poor, having still to be subsisted in a great measure by the Government. It is but due to say of the Yanktons, that, while other bands of Sioux have been hostile to the Government and its citizens, they have uniformly been friendly, even to the extent of assisting the Government against their own kindred. They are now giving considerable attention to the education of their children, having six schools in operation, with an average attendance of 366 scholars. The change in this latter respect has resulted mainly from the benevolent efforts of the missionaries of the Episcopal Church, and of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Miissions. Under a
treaty made with this band April 19, 1858, they have a limited annuity of $40,000, six installments of that amount still due, and thereafter $25,000 for ten years, and then $15,000 for the further term of twenty years, part of which is paid to them per capita, the residue being expended for their benefit.
The Sisseton and Wahpeton bands hsve two reservations; one in the eastern part of the Territory, at Lake Traverse, containing 1,241,600 acres, where are 1,496 Indians and one in the northeastern part of the Territory, at Devil's Lake, containing 345,600 acres, where are 720 Indians, including a few from the "Cut-Head" band of Sioux. These two reservations are provided for in a treaty made with the bands in 1867. These Indians were a portion of the Sioux living in Minnesota at the time of the outbreak in 1862. Many of them claim to have been, and doubtless were, friendly to the whites during the troubles referred to, and when the removal of the Sioux took place in 1863, as noticed heretofore, under the title of "Santee Sioux," they went to the western part of Minnesota and to the eastern and northern parts of Dakota, near their present reservations. They are quite generally engaged in agricultural operations, under the system adopted while they were on their reservation in Minnesota, by which the individual Indians receive pay in goods or supplies for all work performed, only the aged, infirm, or sick being supplied with clothing and subsistence gratuitously. So far as these Indians are concerned, the scheme has been decidedly successful, nd it should be extended to all the tribes snd bands now on the "feeding-list," so soon as practicable. There are four schools in operation for the bands at Lake Traverse, attended by 123 scholars. An unusual degree of interest is manifested of late in having their children educated. By treaty made with them in 1867, the amount of funds to be appropriated annually for their benefit is at the discretion of Congress. For the present year, the sum of $75,000 has been appropriated for the benefit of these Indians. They also participate in the proceeds derived from the sales of the Sioux lands in Minnesota, which furnish a considerable revenue yearly.
The Oncpapa, Blackfeet, Lower Yanktonai, Upper Yanktonai, Sans Arc, Upper and Lower Brule, Two Kettle, Minneconjou, and Ogallala bands are located at five different agencies, viz: the Upper Missouri, or Crow Creek agency, on the east side of the Missouri; tne Grand River agency, at the mouth of the Grand River; the Cheyenne River agency, at the mouth of the Cheyenne River; the Whetstone agency, (so called from its former location at the junction of the Whetstone with the Missouri Rivers,) on the White River, about two hundred and twenty-five miles west of the Missouri; and the Red Cloud agency, at present on the South Platte, about thirty miles southeast from Fort Laramie. The Indians at these agencies number in the aggregate about 22,000. They have a reservation set apart for them by the treaty of 1868, containing about 25,000,000 acres, lying west of the Missouri River and north of Nebraska. Prior to this treaty, these Indians had for years been engaged in acts of hostility against the Government and in depredations upon the white settlers. Claiming to own most, if not all, of the Territory of Dakota, and portions of the Territories of Montana and Wyoming, as well as the western part of Nebraska, they used every effort to prevent the settlement of the country so claimed, their hostility being especially directed against the Union Pacific Railroad. The military operations of 1867-'68, however, convinced the Sioux of the hopelessness of opposing the progress of the railroad and the settlement of the immediate belt through which it was to pass, and disposed them to accept the provision made for them by the treaty of 1868. With the exception of the main
portion of the Ogallala band, at the Red Cloud agency, and a considerable body of disaffected Indians from all the bands, known as the "hostile Sioux," of whom "Sitting Bull" and "Black Moon" are the principal chiefs, these bands are all within the limits of the reservation set apart by said treaty of 1868. A few at each of the agencies on the Missouri River have shown a disposition to engage in agriculture, but by far the greater part of them remain "breech-clout" Indians, disinclined to labor for a living, and accepting subsistence from the Government as the naturaI and proper consideration for the favor done the Government by their consenting to remain at the agencies assigned them. lf they have any suspicion that this thing cannot last forever, and that the time will soon come for them to work or starve, the great majority do not allow themselves to be influenced by it, but seem determined to put the evil day as far off as possible. The present cost of supporting these 25,000 Indians does not fall much short of $1,500,000 per annum, an expenditure the continuance of which beyond the treaty provisions to that effect (expiring in 1874) could only be justified by such considerations as were urged in the first pages of this report. It must be remembered that the Government has, more than once, spent in six months in fighting the Sioux what it would cost at present rates to support them for six years, while the present policy allows our railways and settlements to progress without practical obstruction. The reported attacks on the surveying parties and the stations of the Northern Pacific Railroad during the summer and autumn, were really of the most contemptible character, and merely served to suggest the difficulties which this great national work would encounter if opposed by the whole fighting force of the Sioux nation, as it would necessarily be but for the feeding system. Efforts have been and are still being made to induce the Ogallalas under Red Cloud to remove voluntarily to some place within the limits of their reservation, where their agency may be established, but as yet this has not been effected. Until this matter has been definitely settled, nothing can be done to advance this band in civilization. Under their treaty of April 29, 1868, these Indians receive annuities, &c, as follows: In clothing, (twenty-seven installments still due,) $159,400; beneficial objects, (twenty-seven installments still due,) $236,000; subsistence, including the Yankton Sioux and the Poncas, (one installment due,) $1,314,000; and to the ten persons who grow the best crops, (last appropriation made,) $500. They are also, by the terms of said treaty, furnished with blacksmiths, teachers, physician, miller, engineer, and farmer, at an expense to the Government of $12,400.
Poncas.The Poncas, numbering 735, have a reservation of 576,000 acres, near the confluence of the Niobrara and Missouri Rivers, in the southeastern part of the Territory, provided for them in their treaty with the United States, made in 1858. They are quiet and peaceable, are inclined to be industrious, and engage to some extent in farming; but from various causes, principally the destruction of their crops by grasshoppers, have not succeeded in supporting themselves without assistance from the Government. They are well advanced in civilized habits of life, and have shown considerable interest in the education of their children, having three schools in operation, with an average attendance of 77 scholars. By the treaty of March 12, 1858, they receive limited annuities, &c, as follows: $10,000,* which is paid to them in money or expended for their benefit, and $7,500 (during the pleasure of the President) for aid in agricultural and mechanical pur-
* But one further installment of their $10,000 annuity remains due, after which they will become entitled by treaty to an annuity of $8,000 for the term of fifteen years.
suits. They are also supplied with sufficient. subsistence, at the expense of the Government, to prevent actual suffering, though not upon the "feeding-list," like their neighbors, the Sioux.
Arickarees, Gros Ventres, and Mandans.These tribes number 2,200, and have a reservation set apart for their occupancy by Executive order of April 12, 1870, comprising 8,640,000 acres, situated in the northwestern part of Dakota and the eastern part of Montona, extending to the Yellowstone and Powder Rivers. They have no treaty with the Government, are now and have always been friendly to the whites, are exceptionally known to the officers of the Army and to frontiersmen as "good Indians" and are engaged to some extent in agriculture. Owing to the shortness of the agricultural season, the rigor of the climate, and the periodical ravages of grasshoppers, their efforts in this direction, though made with a degree of patience and perseverance not usual in the Indian character, have met with frequent and distressing reverses, and it has from time to time been found necessary to furnish them with more or less subsistence to prevent starvation. They are traditional enemies of the Sioux, and the petty warfare maintained between them and the Sioux of the Grand River and Cheyenne River agencies, while, like most warfare confined to Indians alone, it causes wonderfully little loss of life, serves to disturb the condition of these agencies, and to retard the progress of all the parties concerned. These Indians should be moved to the Indian Territory, south of Kansas, where the mildness of the climate and the fertility of the soil would repay them their labors, and where, it is thought, from their willingness to labor and their docility under the control of the Government, they would in a few years become wholly self-supporting. The question of their removal has been submitted to them and they seem inclined to favor the project, but have expressed a desire to send a delegation of their chiefs to the Indian Territory, with a view of satisfying themselves as to the desirableness of the location. Their wishes in this respect should be granted early next season, that their removal and settlement may be effected during the coming year. Notwithstanding their willingness to labor, they have shown but little interest in education; there is at present no school for them, unless one has been opened since September last by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Congress makes an appropriation of $75,000 annually for goods and provisions, for their instruction in agricultural and mechanical pursuits, for salaries of employes, and for the education of their children, &c.
The Indian tribes residing within the limits of Montana are the Blackfeet, Bloods, and Piegans, the Gros Ventres of the Prairie, the Assinaboines, the Yanktonais, Santee and Teton (so called) Sioux; a portion of the northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes, the River Crows, the Mountain Crows, the Flatheads, Pend d'Oreilles and Kootenays, and a few Shoshones, Bannocks and Sheep-Eaters, numbering in the aggregate about 32,412. They are all, or nearly all, native to the regions now occupied by them respectively.
The following table will exhibit the population of each of these tribes,as nearly as the same can be ascertained:
|Blackfeet, Bloods, and Piegan||7,500|
|Santee, Yanktonais, Uncpapa, and Cut-Head Sioux, at Milk River agency||2,625|
|Shoshones, Bannocks, and Sheep-Eaters||677|
|Roving Sioux, commonly called Teton Sioux, including those gathered during 1872, at and near Fort Peck, (largely estimated)||8,000|
The number of Northern Cheyennes and Arapahoes roaming in Montana, who, it is believed, have co-operated with the Sioux under "Sitting Bull" in their depredations, is not known; it is probably less than 1,000.
The Blackfeet, Bloods, snd Piegans, (located at the Blackfeet agency on the Teton River, about seventy-five miles from Fort Benton;) the GrosVentres, Assinaboines the River Crows about 1 000 of the Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes,* and the Santee and Yankton Sioux, (locatedat the Milk River agency, on the Milk River, about 100 miles from itsmouth,) occupy jointly a reservation in the extreme northern part of the Territory, set apart by treaties (not ratified) made in 1868 with most of the tribes named, and containing about 17,408,000 acres. The Black-feet, Bloods, and Piegans, particularly the last-named band, have been, until within about two years, engaged in depredating upon the white settlers. The Indians at the Milk River agency, with the exception of theSioux, are now, and have been for several years, quiet and peaceable. The Sioux at this agency, or most of them, were engaged iu the out-break in Minnesota in 1862. On the suppression of hostilities theyfled to the northern part of Dakota, where they have been roaming until, in the fall of 1871, they went to their present location, with the avowed intention of remaining there. Although they had been at war for years with the Indians properly belonging to the Milk River agency, yet, by judicious management on the part of the agent of the Government stationed there, and the influence of some of the most powerful chiefs, the former feuds and difficulties were amicably arranged, and all parties have remained friendly to each other during the year past. The Indians at neither the BIackfeet nor the Milk River agency show any disposition to engage in farming, nor have they thus far manifested any desire for the education of their children. They rely entirely upon the chase and upon the bounty of the Government their support. They, however, quite scrupulously respect their obligation to preserve the peace, and no considerable difficulty has of late been experienced, or is anticipated, in keeping them in order. The Blackfeet, Bloods, and Piegans have an annual appropriation of $50,000made for their benefit; the Assinaboines, $30,000; the Gros Ventresof the Prairie, $35,000; the River Crows, $30,000. These funds areused in furnishing the respective tribes with goods and subsistence, and
*The Cheyennes and Arapahoes of the south have been noted in the review of the tribes found in the southwestern portion of the Indian Territory. The Cheyennes and Arapahoes of Montana have, in common with still other members of those tribes roaming principally in the eastern part of Wyoming, a treaty with the Government, by the terms of which they may accept for their home a portion of the country set apart for the Southern Arapahoes and Cheyennes in the Indian Territory south of Kansas, or of that set apart for the Sioux by the treaty of 1868, or may attach themselves to the Crow agency on the Yellowstone River. All efforts on the part of the Department to induce them to select one of the three places named, and settle permanently thereon, have thus far failed. These efforts are being continued, and it is hoped they may at an early day prove successful.
generally for such other objects as may be deemed necessary to keepthe Indians quiet. For the Sioux at the Milk River agency an extraordinary appropriation of $150,000 as made the last year, to provide them with subsistence.
Mountain Crows.These Indians have a reservation of 6,272,000 acres lying in the southern part of the Territory, between the Yellowstone River and the north line of Wyoming Territory. They have always been friendly to the whites, but are inveterate enemies 0 the Sioux, with whom they have for years been at war. By the treaty of 1868by the terms of which their present reservation was set apart for their occupancythey are liberally supplied with goods, clothing, and subsistence. But few of them are engaged iu farming, the main body relying upon their success in hunting, and upon the supplies furnished by the Government, for their support. They have one school in operation, with an attendance, however, of only nine scholars. By the treaty of May 7,1868, provision is made by which they are to receive for a limited number of years the following annuities, &c, viz: In clothing and goods, $22,723, (twenty-six installments due;) in benefical objects, $25,000, (six installments due ;) in subsistence, $131,400, (one installment due.) Blacksmiths, teachers, physician, carpenter, miller, engineer, and farmer are also furnished for their benefit, at an expense to the Government of $11,600.
Flatheads, &c.The FIatheads, Pend d'Orellies, and Kootenays havea reservation o 1,433,600 acres in the Jocko Valley, situated in thenorthwestern part of the Territory, and secured to them by treaty of 1855. This treaty also provided for a reservation in the Bitter Root Valley, should the President of the United States deem it advisable to set apart another one for their use. The Flatheads have remained in the last-named valley; but under the provisions of the act of June 5, 1872, steps are being taken for their removal to the Jocko reservation. Many of these Indians are engaged in agriculture, but, as they receive little assistance from the Government, their progress in this direction is slow. They have one school in operation, with an attendance of 27 scholars. Under the treaty of July 16, 1855, they have a limited annuity of $4,000, (one installment of $4,O00 and five of $3,000 still due,) which is expended for their benefit in the purchase of goods, &c. Certain employes, teachers, &c, are also maintained, in accordance with the treaty, at an expense to the Government of $12,500 a year. The head chief of each of the three tribes is also paid $500.
Shoshones, &c.The Shoshones, Bannocks, and Sheep-Eaters are present located about twenty miles above the mouth of the Lemhi Fork of the Salmon River, near the western boundary of the Territory. They have shown considerable interest in agriculture, and many of them are quite successful as farmers. They have no reservation set apart for them, either by treaty or by Executive order. They are so few in number that it would probably be better to remove them with their consent, the Fort Hall reservation in Idaho, where their brethren are 1ocated, than to provide them with a separate reservation. They have no schools in operation. An annual appropriation of $25,000 is made for these Indians, which sum is expended for their benefit in the purchase of clothing, subsistence, agricultural implements, &c.
kota and Montana, respectively, are the eastern band of Shoshones, numbering about one thousand. The Shoshones are native to the country. Their reservaItion in the Wind River Valley, containing 2,688,000 acres, was set apart for them by treaty of 1868. On account of difficulties apprehended in consequence of the intrusion of settlers and miners upon the southern portion of this reservation, the President was authorized by act of June 1, 1872, to negotiate with the Shoshones for the relinquishment of that portion of the reservation lying south of the dividing ridge between the Big Popoagie and Little Wind Rivers, and south of the forty-third parallel. In retnrn for such relinquishment, the act contemplated the cession to them of lands lying north of, and adjacent to, their present reservation, equal in area to the lands so relinquished. Negotiations have accordingly been made, and the consent of the Indians to this relinquishment has been obtained, upon terms which will be stated in detail under the head of "Legislation Proposed."
But little advancement in civilization has been made by these Indians, owing to their indisposition to labor for a living, and to the incessant incursions into their country of the Sioux and the Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes, with which tribes they have for many years been at war. The losses sustained from these incursions, and the dread which they inspire, tend to make the Shoshones unsettled and unwilling to remain continuously on the reservation. They therei:ore spend most of the year in roaming and hunting when they should be at work tilling the soil and improving their lands. Their agent says of them, in his annual report, that their views in regard to their mode of life have, of late, somewhat changed; they having consented to abandon their 'migratory habits,' and enter upon stock-raising and farming. There is one school at the agency, having an attendance of ten scholars, in charge of an Episcopal missionary as teacher.
Under the treaty of July 3, 1868, these Indians receive limited annuities in clothing to the about of $13,874, (twenty-seven installments due,) and for beneficial objects $30,000, (eight installments due.) They are also furnished with various employes, and with iron and steel, at an expense to the Government of $8,800. Provision is also made for the payment of $50 (one installment due) to each of the ten persons who grow the most valuable crops.
A portion of the Bannocks have since the treaty of 1868, been visiting the agency of the Shoshones, and have received their annuity goods there. They belong, however, to the Fort Hall reservation, in Idaho, and will hereafter receive their annuity goods at that place.
The Indian tribes in Idaho are the Nez Perces; the Boise and Bruneau Shoshones, and Bannocks; the Cțoeur d~Alenes and Spokanes, with several other small bands, numbering in the aggregate about 5,800 souls.
Nez Perces.The Nez Perces number 2,807, and have a reservation of 1,344,000 acres in the northern part of the Territory. By treaties of 1855 and 1863, they ceded to the United States a large body of land lying within the limits of the then Territories of Oregon and Washington, and accepted their present diminished reservation, with certain annuities in consideration of the cession of the remainder. The tribe has long been divided into factions known as the "treaty" party and the "non-treaty" party, from disagreements arising out of the treay made with them in 1863. Though the ill-feeling engendered has in a measure subsided, the "non-treaty" Indians, to the number of a few
hundred, still stand apart and accept no favors from the Government. These, with few exceptions, reside outside the reservation on Snake River and its tributaries, and cause more or less trouble in a petty way to the white settlers. The Nez Perces generally have for many years been friendly to the whites, are quite extensively engaged in agriculture, and may be considered well advanced in civilization. They show considerable interest in the education of their children, and have two schools in operation, with an attendance of 124 scholars. Under the treaties of June 11, 1855, and June 9, 1863, these Indians receive limited annuities, &c., (from seven to nine installments due,) as follows: For beneficial objects, $6,000; support of schools, pay of teachers, boarding and clothing children, &c., $7,300, and salaries of head chief and subordinate chiefs, $1,500. Employes of different kinds are also maintained, at a cost, after including the repairs on buildings, purchase of medicine, &c., of $15,500 per annum.
Shoshones and Bannocks.These Indians, numbering 1,037, the former 516 and the latter 521, occupy a reservation in the southeastern part of the Territory, near Fort Hall, formerly a military post. This reservation was set apart by treaty of 1868 and Executive order of July 30, 1869, and contains 1,568,000 acres. The Shoshones on this reservation have no treaty with the Government. Both bands are generally quiet and peaceable, and cause but little trouble; are not disposed to engage in agriculture, and, with some assistance from the Government, depend upon hunting and fishing for subsistence. There is no school in operation on the reservation. Under the treaty of July 3, 1868, with the Shoshones and Bannocks, the Bannocks are entitled to limited annuities in clothing to the amount of $6,937, (twenty-seven installments due,) and for beneficial objects, $16,000, (seven installments due.) A physician, teacher, and other employes are also maintained for their benefit, at an expense to the Government of $6,800 per annum. Congress also appropriates annually for those Indians on the Fort Hall reservation, who have no treaty with the United States, and for other Indians in Southeastern Oregon, the sum of $40,000, one-half of which is expended for the benefit of those residing on this reservation.
Coeur d'Alenes, &c.The Coeur d'Alanes, Spokanes, Kootenays, and Pend d'Oreilles, numbering about 2,000, have no treaty with the United States, but have a reservation of 256,000 acres set apart for their occupancy by Executive order of June 14, 1867, lying 30 or 40 miles north of the Nez Perces reservation. They are peaceable, have no annuities, receive no assistance from the Government, and are wholly self sustaining. These Indians have never been collected upon a reservation nor brought under the immediate supervision of an agent. So long as their country shall remain unoccupied, and not in demand for settlement by the whites, it will scarcely be desirable to make a change in their location; but the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad, which will probably pass through or near their range, may make it expedient to concentrate them. At present they are largely under the influence of Catholic missionaries of the Coeur d'Alene Mission.
The Indians residing in Colorado Territory are the Tabequache band of Utes, at the Los Pinos agency, numbering 3,000, and the Yampa, Grand River, and Uintah bands of the White River agency, numbering 800. They are native to the section which they now inhabit, and have a reservation of 14,784,000 acres in the western part of the Territory, set apart for their occupancy by treaty made with them in 1868. The two agencies above named are established on this reservation, the White River agency being in the northern part, on the river of that name, and the other in the southeastern part. This reservation is much larger than is necessary for the number of Indians located within its limits, and as valuable gold and silver mines have been, or are alleged to have been, discovered in the southern part of it, the discoveries being followed by the inevitable prospecting parties and miners, Congress, by act of April 23, 1872, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to enter into negotiations with the Utes for the extinguishment of their right to the south part of it. The proceedings of the commission appointed pursuant to the provisions of this act will be found under the appropriate title in another portion of this report. Notwithstanding the present failure of the efforts to this end, it is not doubted that the result will yet be secured; and inasmuch as trouble between the miners and Indians may occur at any time, the sooner the object is effected the better it will be for all concerned.
A few of these Indians, who have declined to remove to and remain upon the reservation, still roam in the eastern part of the Territory, frequently visiting Denver and its vicinity, and causing some annoyance to the settlers by their presence but committing no acts of violence or extensive depredations. The Indians of Colorado have thus far shown but little interest in the pursuits of civilized life or in the education of their children. A school is in operation at the Northern or White River agency, with an attendance of 40 scholars. Steps are also being taken to open one at the Southern or Los Pinos agency. Under the treaties made with these Indians, October 7, 1863, and March 2, 1868, they are receiving limited annuities, &c., (from one to twenty-six installments due,) as follows: In goods, clothing, blankets, &c, $40,000, and in subsistence $40,000. Provision is also made for furnishing them with various employes, shops, iron and steel, &c., at an expense to the Government of $11,940.
The tribes residing and roaming within the limits of New Mexico are the Navajoes, the Mescalero, Gila, and Jicarilla bands of Apaches, the Muache, Capote, and Weeminuche bands of Utes, and the Pueblos.
Navajoes.The Navajoes now number 9,114, an increase of 880 over last years' enumeration. Superintendent Pope considers this increase to be mainly due to the return, during the year, of a number who had been held in captivity by the Mexicans. They have a reservation of 3,328,000 acres in the northwestern part of New Mexico and northeastern part of Arizona, set apart for them by treaty of 1868. These Indians are natives of the section of the country where they are now located. Prior to 1864 no less than seven treaties had been made with these tribes, which were successively broken on their part, and that, with but one exception, before the Senate could take action on the question of their ratification. In 1864 the Navajoes were made captives by the military, and taken to
the Bosque Redondo reservation, which had been set apart for the Mescalero Apaches, where they were for a time held as prisoners of war, and then turned over to this Department. After the treaty of 1868 had been concluded, they were removed to their present location, where they have, as a tribe, remained quiet and peaceable, many of them being engaged in agriculture and in raising sheep and goats. Of these they have large flocks, numbering 130,000 head, which supply them not only with subsistence but also with material from which they manufacture the celebrated, and, for warmth and durability, unequaled, Navajo blanket.* They also have a stock of 10,000 horses. These Indians are industrious, attend faithfully to their crops, and even put in a second crop when the first, as frequently happens, is destroyed by drought or frost. A point on the San Juan River about ninety miles from the present agency, and within the bounds of their reservation, has recently been selected for their farming operations, the valley of that river being far better adapted for this purpose than the portions of the reservation heretofore cultivated.
The reason for the non-occupation heretofore of this section of the reserve has been found in their dread of war-parties from the Utes, who also claim the country. A special agent has been appointed to take charge of the Indians who gather at this point. It is a matter of profound regret to the Department that on the 11th of June last James H. Miller, esq., agent for the Navajoes, while in the performance of duty connected with this very object, was surprised aud murdered in his camp on the San Juan by two Ute Indians.
One school is in operation on the reservation, with an attendance of forty scholars. The Navajoes are receiving, under the provisions of their treaty of 1868, limited annuities, (six iustallments due) in clothing, or material for clothing, $40,000, and in other beneficial objects, $14,000. Provision is also made for the employment of two teachers, at a cost to the Government of $2,000 per annum. Owing to the partial failure their crops, from the causes already indicated, the Navajoes have for some years been partially subsisted, off and on, by the Government.
Mescalero Apaches.These Indians, numbering about 830, are at present 1ocatednot, however, upon a defined reservation secured to them--near Fort Stanton, in the eastern part of the Territory, and range generally south of that point. Prior to 1864 they were located on the Bosque Redondo reservations, where they were quiet and peaceable until the Navajoes were removed to that place. Being unable to live in harmony with the newcomers, they fled from the reservation, and until quite recently have been more or less hostile. They are now living at peace with the whites and conducting themselves measurably well. They have no schools, care nothiug apparently about the education of their children, and are not to any noticeable extent engaged in farming or in any pursuit of an industrial character. These Indians have no treaty with the United States, nor do they receive any annuities. They are, however, subsisted in part by the Government and are supplied with a limited quantity of clothing when necessary. In addition to the Mescaleros proper, Agent Curtis reports as being embraced in his agency other Indians, called by him Aguas Nuevos, 440; Lipans, 350, (probably from Texas;) and Southern Apaches, 310, whose proper home is no doubt upon the Tularosa reservation. These Indians, the agent
*The Navajo blankets are a wonder of patient workmanship, and often sell as high as $80, $100 and $150.
remarks, came from the Comanche country to his agency at various dates during the past year.
Gila (sometimes called Southern) Apaches.This tribe is composed of two bands, the Mimbres and Mogollons, and number about 1,200. They are warlike, and have for years been generally unfriendly to the Government. The citizens of Southern New Mexico, having long suffered from their depredatory acts, loudly demanded that they be removed, and, to comply with the wish of the people, as well as to prevent serious difficulties, and possibly war, it was a year or two since decided to provide the Indians with a reservation distant from their old home and there establish them. With a view to that end a considerable number of them were collected early last year at Canada Alamosa. Subsequently, by Executive order dated November 9, 1871, a reservation was set apart for them with other roving bands of Apaches in the Tularosa Valley, to which place 450 of them are reported to have been removed during the present year by United States troops. These Indians, although removed against their will, were at first pleased with the change, but, after a short experience of their new home, became dissatisfied, and no small portion left the reservation to roam outside, disregarding the system of passes established. They bitterly object to the 1ocation as unhealthy, the climate being severe and the water bad. There is undoubtedly much truth in these complaints. They ask to be taken back to Canada Alamosa, their old home, promising there to be peaceable and quiet. Of course nothing can be said of them favorable to the interests of education and labor. Such of these Indians as remain on the reservation are being fed by the Government. They have no treaty with the United States nor do they receive annuities of any kind.
Jicarilla Apaches.These Indians, numbering about 850, have for several years been located with the Muache Utes, about 650 in number, at the Cimarron agency, upon what is called "Maxwell's Grant" in "Northeastern New Mexico. They have no treaty relations with the Government, nor have they any reservation set apart for them. Efforts were made some years ago to have them, with the Utes referred to, remove to the large Ute reservation in Colorado, but without success. The Cimarron agency, however, has lately been discontinued, and these Apaches will, if it can be effected without actual conflict, be removed to the Mescalero agency at Fort Stanton. Four hundred Jicarilla Apaches are also reported as being at the Tierra Amarilla agency. The Jicarillas have heretofore supported themselves by hunting, with such assistance as this Department has been able, without specific appropriations; to render them.
Muache, Weeminuche, and Capote UtesThese bands, the Muache band, numbering about 650, heretofore at the Cimarron agency, and the other two bands, numbering 870, at the Abiquiu agency, are all parties to the treaty made with the several bands of Utes in 1868. It has been desired to have these Indians remove to their proper reservation in Colorado, but all efforts to this end have thus far proved futile. The discontinuance of the Cimarron agency may have the effect to cause the Muaches to remove either to that reservation or to the Abiquiu agency, now located at Tierra Amarilla, in the northwestern part of the Territory. These three bands have generally been peaceable and friendly to the whites. Recently, however, some of them have shown a disposition to be troublesome, but no serious difficulty is apprehended. None of them appear disposed to work for a subsistence, preferring to live by the chase and on the bounty of the Government; nor do they show any inclination or desire to have their children educated and taught
the habits and customs of civilized life. Declining to remove to and locate permanently upon the reservation set apart for the Utes in Colorado, they receive no annuities and participate in none of the benefits provided in the treaties of 1863 and 1868 with the several bands of Ute Indians referred to under the head of "Colorado."
Pueblos.--The Pueblos, so named because they live in villages, number 7,683. They have 439,664 acres of land confirmed to them by act of Congress of December 22, 1858, the same consisting of approved claims under old Spanish grants. They have no treaty with the United States and receive but little aid from the Government. During the past two years efforts have been made, and are still being continued, to secure the establishment of schools in all the villages of the Pueblos, for the instruction of their children in the English language. Five such schools are now being conducted for their benefit.
The history of the Pueblos is an interesting one. They are the remains of a once powerful people, and in habits and modes of life are still clearly distinguished from all other aborigines of the continent. The Spanish invaders found them living generally in towns and cities. They are so described by Spanish historians as far back as 1540. They early revolted, though without success, against Spanish rule, and in the struggle many of their towns were burned and much loss of life and property occasioned. It would seem, however, that, in addition to the villagers, there were others, at that time living, dispersed, whose reduction to Pueblos was determined upon and made the subject of a decree by Charles V of Spain, in 1546, in order chiefly, as declared, to their being instructed in the Catholic faith. Under the Spanish government schools were established at the villlages, the Christian religion was introduced and impressed upon the people, and the rights of property thoroughly protected. By all these means a high degree of civilization was secured, which was maintained until after the establishment of Mexican independence, when, from want of government care and support, decay followed, and the Pueblos measurably deteriorated, down to the time when the authority of the United States was extended over that country; still they are a remarkable people, noted for their sobriety, industry, and docility. They have few wants, and are simple in their habits and moral in their lives. They are, indeed, scarcely to be considered Indians in the sense traditionally attached to that word, and, but for their residence upon reservations patented to these bands in confirmation of ancient Spanish grants, and their continued tribal organization, might be regarded as a part of the ordinary population of the country. There are now nineteen villages of these Indians in New Mexico. Each village has a distinct and organized government, with its governor and other officers, all of whom are elected annually by the people, except the cacique, a sort of high priest, who holds his office during life. Though nominally Catholics in religion, it is thought that their real beliefs are those of their ancestors in the days of Montezuma. A much-vexed question affecting the peace and prosperity of this people remains to be settled, and, it is hoped, will be determined without unnecessary delay, namely, whether they are citizens of the United States, or Indians, to whom the law of 1834, respecting trade and intercourse with Indian tribes, is applicable. Chief Justice Slough, of the United States first judicial district of the Territory of New Mexico decided, in 1867, that their status was that of citizens. This decision will be found contained in Document No. 59, accompanying the annual report of this Office for 1867, page 217.
The tribes residing wholly or in part within the limits of Utah are the Northwestern, Western, and Goship bands of Shoshones; the Weber, Yampa, Elk Mountain, and Uintah bands of Utes; the Timpanagos, the San Pitches, the Pah-Vents, the Piedes, and She-be-rechers, all, with the exception of the Shoshones, speaking the Ute language, and being native to the country inhabited by them.
Northwestern, Western, and Goship Shoshones.These three bands of Shoshones, numbering together about 3,000 have treaties made with the Government in 1863. No reservations were provided to be set apartfor them by the terms of said treaties, the only provision for their benefit being the agreement on the part of the United States to furnish them with articles, to a limited extent and for a limited term, suitable to their wants as hunters or herdsmen. Having no reservations, but little can be done for their advancement. They live in Northwestern Utah andand are generally inclined to be industrious, many of them gaining a livelihood by working for the white settlers, while others cultivate small tracts of land on their account. Under the treaties referred to, the sum of $5,000 is appropriated annually for the Northwestern bands, $5,000 for the Western bands, and $1,000 for the Goship bands. These items are to be appropriated for eleven years from the present time. The money is expended for the benefit of the lndians, in accordance with the terms of the treaties.
The Weber Utes, numbering about 300, live in the vicinity of Salt Lake City, and subsist by hunting, fishing and begging. The Timpanagos, numbering about 500, live south of Salt Lake City, and live by hunting and fishing. The San Pitches, numbering about 300, live, with the exception of some who have gone to the Uintah Valley reservation, in the country south and east of the Timpanagos, and subsist by hunting and fishing. The Pah-Vents number about 1,200, and occupy the territory south of the Goships, cultivate small patches of ground, but live principally by hunting and fishing. The Yampa Utes, Piedes, Pi-Utes, Elk Mountain Utes, and She-be-rechers live in the eastern and southern parts of the Territory, They number, as nearly as can be estimated, 5,200; do not cultivate the soil, but subsist by hunting and fishing, and at times by depredating in a small way upon the white settlers. They are warlike and migratory in their habits, carrying on a petty warfare pretty much all the time with the southern Indians. These bands of Utes have no treaties with the United States; they receive no annuities, and but very little assistance from the Government.
The Uintah Utes, numbering 800, are now residing upon a reservation of 2,039,040 acres in Uintah Valley, in the northeastern corner of the Territory, set apart for the occupancy of the Indians in Utah by Executive order of October 3, 1861, and by act of Congress of May 5, 1864. This reservation comprises some of the best farming land in Utah, and is of sufficient extent to maintain all the Indians in the Territory. Some of the Indians located here show a disposition to engage in agriculture, though most of them still prefer the chase to labor. No steps have yet been taken to open a school on the reservation. The Uintah Utes have no treaty with the United States, but an appropriation averaging about $10,000 has been annually made for their civilization and improvement since 1863.
In respect to the Indians of Utah it may be said generally that the time will soon come when they must, in ,the interest of peace and settlement, be constrained to go upon the Uintah reservation, or such
other reservation as shall be set apart for them by Executive order or congressional action, and be strictly held there by military force, shouldthat be found necessary. It is even a fair question whether the presentcondition of things should be allowed to continue through another season.
The tribes residing in the Territory of Arizona are the Pimas and Maricopas, Papagoes, Mohaves, Moquis, and Orivas Pueblos, Yumas, Yavapais, Hualapais, and diiierent bands of the Apaches. All are native to the districts occupied by them, respectively.
Pimas and Maricopas.These, said to have been in former years "Village" or "Pueblo" Indians, number 4,342, and occupy a reservation of 64,000 acres set apart for them under the act of February 28, 1859, and located in the central part of the Territory, on the Gila River. They are, and always have been, peaceful, and loyal to the Government; are considerably advanced, according to a rude form of civilization, and, being industrious, and engaged quite successfully whenever the conditions of soil and climate are favorable, in farming operations, are nearly self-sustaining. The relations of these bands with the neighboring whites are, however, very unfavorable to their interests, and the condition of affairs is fast growing worse. The difficulty arises out of the fact of the use, and, probably, the improvident use, by the whites above them, of the water of the Gila River, by which they are deprived of all means of irrigating their lands. Much dissatisfaction is manifested on this account, and the result is, so far, that many of the Indians have left the reservation and gone to Salt River VaIIey, where they are making a living by tilling the soil, not, however, without getting into trouble at this point also with the settlers. It is seriously in contemplation by the Department to secure their removal to the Indian Territory. Before, however, any authority or ap-propriation for this purpose is asked from Congress, the minds of theIndians will be influenced to desire the change. Instructions to thiseffect have been given to the agent and superintendent in charge.
The Pimas and Maricopas are greatly interested in the educationof their children. Two schools are in operation on the reservation,with an attendance of 105 scholars. These tribes have no treaty withthe United States, and receive but little assistance from the Government.
Papagoes.These Indians, numbering about 5,000, are of the sameclass, in some respects, as the Pueblos in New Mexico, living in villages,cultivating the soil, and raising stock for a support. They have no reservation set apart for their occupancy, but inhabit the southeasternpart of the Territory. Many of them have embraced Christianity, andthey are generally well-behaved, quiet and peaceable. They manifest a strong desire to have their children educated, and steps to this end havebeen taken by the Department. These Indians have no treaty relationswith the United States, and receive no assistance from the Government.The expediency of assigning to the Papagoes a reservation, and con-centrating them where they can be brought within the direct care andcontrol of the Government, is under consideration by the Department.There seems to be no reason to doubt that, if so established and oncesupplied with implements and stock, they would become in a short timenot only self-sustaining, but prosperous. It was in contemplation years ago to set apart a reservation for them at San Xavier, so as to include
the venerable church built there by their ancestors, and it may yet beadvisable and practicable to establish them at that point.
Mohaves.These Indians have a reservation of 75,000 acres, locatedon the Colorado River, and set apart for them and other tribes in thevicinity of said river, under the act of March 3, 1865. The Mohavesnumber about 4,000, of whom only 828 are on the reservation, the resteither roaming at large or being fed at other reservations in the Territory. An irrigating canal has been built for them at great expense, but farming operations have not as yet proved very successful. Over 1,100 acres, however, are being cultivated by the Indians. The crops consist of corn, melons, and pumpkins. These Indians show but little progress in civilization. The parents objecting to the education of their children, no schools have been put in operation on the reservation, as they could beconducted only on a compulsory system. The Mohaves have no treatystipulations with the United States, but they are partly subsisted andare largely assisted in their farming operations from the general incidental fund of the Territory.
Yumas.These Indians number probably 2,000. They inhabit the country near the mouth of the Colorado River, but belong to the reservation occupied by the Mohaves. They refuse, however, to remove to the reservation, and gain a scanty subsistence by planting and by cutting wood for steamers plying on the river. Many of them remain about Arizona City, performing menial services for the whites, and gratitifying their inveterate passion for gambling. They have no treaty with the United States, and receive but little assistance from the Governnent.
Hualapais.These Indians, numbering about 1,500, inhabit the country near the Colorado River, north of the Mohaves, ranging a considerable distance into the interior. They have been and still are more orless hostile. Those who are quiet and peaceable are with members ofother bands of Indians, being fed by the Government at Camps McDowell, Beal's Spring, and Date Creek.
Yavapais, and Apaches.These Indians are estimated to number from8,000 to 12,000, the lower estimate being the more reasonable. Theirranging grounds are in the central, northern, and eastern parts of theTerritory. Most of them have long been hostile to the Government,committing numerous robberies and murders. Earnest efforts have beenmade during the past year to settle them on reservations, three of which,viz, Camp Apache, Camp Grant, and Camp Verde, were set apart for their occupancy by Executive order, dated November 9, 1871. These efforts, however, have not resulted very successIully, the Indians occasionally coming upon the reservations in large numbers, but leaving without permission, and, indeed, defiantly, whenever so disposed, often-times renewing their depredations before their supplies of Government rations were exhausted. Many of the bands of this tribe (if it can be called a tribe, habits, physical structure, and language all pointing to a great diversity in origin among the several bands) are seemingly incorrigible, and will hardly be brought to cease their depredations and massacres except by the application of military force. Such as remain the reservations set apart for them are being subsisted and cared for by the Government; the others have now, as this Office understands from the dispatches of the department commander, been turned over to the military, to be dealt with by that branch of the service. For further particulars respecting these Indians, reference is made to the accompanying reports of General O. O. Howard, special commissioner; of
Superintendent Bendell, and of the agents in charge of the reservations set apart for the Apaches.
The tribes residing in Nevada are Pah-Utes, Pi-Utes, Washoes, Shoshones, and Bannocks, and are native to the districts inhabited by them respectively.
Pah-Utes.These Indians, numbering about 6,000, inhabit the western part of the State. Two reservations have been set apart for them, one known as the Walker River, the other as the Pyramid Lake reservation containing each 320,000 acres. These Indians are quiet and friendly to the whites, are very poor, and live chiefly upon fish, game, seeds, and nuts, with such assistance as the Government from time to time renders them. They show considerable disposition to labor; and those on the reservations, especially the Walker River reservation, are cultivating small patches of ground. The Pyramid Lake reservation affords, in addition, excellent fishing, and the surrounding settlements a ready market for the catch, over and above what the Indians require for their own consumption.
No schools have been established for these Indians. They have no treaty relations with the Government, and receive no annuities, but are assisted as much as possible from the small amount of $15,000 annually appropriated for the service in Nevada. This sum has proved inadequate to properly provide for the Indians in this State.
Pi-Utes.The Pi-Utes, numbering probably 2,500, inhabit the southeastern part of the State. They have no reservation set apart for them, nor have they any treaty with the United States. They roam about at will, are very destitute, and obtain a living principally by pilfering from the whites, although a few of them are engaged in a small way in farming. But very little can be done for these Indians by the Government in their present unsettled condition. They should be brought upon one of the reservations set apart for the Indians in Nevada, or upon the Uintah reservation in Utah, where they could receive suitable care and proper instruction in the arts of civilized life.
Washoes.These Indians, numbering about 500, are a poor, miserable, and debauched people, and spend most of their time among the white settlements, where they gain some supplies of food and clothing by menial services. They have no reservation and no treaty, are not in charge of any agent of the Government, and vice and disease are rapidly carrying them away. Shoshones.The Shoshones are a portion of the Northwestern, Western, and Goship bands referred to under the head of "Utah." Those roaming or residing in the eastern part of Nevada number about 2,000. The remarks made respecting their brethren in Utah will equally apply to them.
Bannocks.The Bannocks roaming in the northeastern part of the State number, probably, 1,500, and are doubtless a portion of the people of that name ranging in Eastern Oregon and Southern Idaho. They have no treaty with the Government nor any reservation set apart for them, and are not in charge of any United States agent. They should, if possible, be located upon the Fort Hall reservation in Idaho, where some steps could be taken to advance them in civilization.
The tribes residing in Washington Territory are the Nisqually, Puyallup, and other confederate tribes; the D'Wamish and other allied bands; the Makahs; the S'Klallams; the Qui-nai-elts, and Qui-leh-utes; the Yakamas; the Chehalis and other allied tribes; and the Colville, Spokanes, Cțur d'Alenes, Oknnagans, and others.
Nisqually, Puyallup, and others.These Indians, numbering nbout 1,200, have three reservations containing, as per treaty of 1854, 26,776 acres, situated on the Nisqual]y and Puyallup Rivers, and on an island in Puget Sound. Some of these Indians are engaged in farming, and raise considerable wheat, also potatoes and other vegetables. Many are employed by the farmers in their vicinity, while others still are idle and shiftless, spending their time wandering from place to place. One school is in operation on the Puyallup reservation, with an attendance of eleven scholars. Under the treaty of December 26, 1854, they are to receive annually for a limited period, (two installments due,) $1,000 in beneficial objects; and are furnished with an agricultural and industrial school, at a cost of $1,500 to the Government, and also with teachers, physician, farmer, and other employes at an expense of $6,700 per annum.
D'Wamish and others.The D'Wamish and other allied tribes number 3,600, and have five reservations, containing in all 41,716 acres, set spart by treaty made with them in 1855, and located at as many points on Puget Sound. Many of these Indians, particularly those residing on the Lummi reservation, are industrious farmers, raising all the produce necessary for their support, and owning a large number of cattle, horses, hogs, &c.; while others are either employed by the neighboring white farmers or engaged in lumbering on their own account. They are generally Christianized, most of them members of the Catholic Church. One school, with 57 scholars is in operation on the Tulalip reservation, where all the Government buildings are 1ocated. This school has had a remarkable degree of success, as reported by the agent and by disinterested visitors. Under the treaty of January 22, 1855, made with these bands, they are to receive annually for a limited number of years, in beneficial objects, $6,000, (two installments due, after which they become entitled to $4,000 annually for five years,) are supplied with an agricultural and industrial school, at an expense of $3,000 per annum, and are also to be provided with certain employes and shops, the salaries and support of which cost the Government annually $5,100.
Makahs.These Indians number 604 and have a reservation of 12,800 acres set apart by treaty made with them in 1855, and located at the extreme northwest corner of the Territory. They are a bold, hardy race, not inclined to till the soil for a support, but depending principally upon fishing and the taking of fur-seal for their livelihood. One school is in operation among them, with an attendance of 16 scholars. Under the treaty of January 31, 1855, they receive for a certain number of years (seven installments due) $1,000 in beneficial objects, and are supplied with an agricultural and industrial school, at a cost of $2,500 annua]ly, and with certain employes and shops, the salaries and support of which cost the Government $5,100 per anuum.
S Klallams.Thege Indians, numbering 919, have a reservation of 4,000 acres, set apart by treaty made with them in 1855, and 1ocated on what is known as "Hood's Canal." Some of them are engaged, in a sma11 way, in farming, and others are employed in logging for the neighboring saw-mills. Their condition generally is such that their advance-
ment in civilization must necessarily be slow. A school has been established on the reservation, and is attended by 22 scholars. Under the treaty made with these Indians January 26, 1855, appropriations are made annually, for their benefit, as follows: For beneficial objects, 82,400, (two installments due, after which they become entitled to $1,600 annually, for five years;) for support of an agricultural and industrial school, including pay of teachers, $2,500; for the employment of certain mechanics and laborers, $4,600, and for the support of shops, $500. These benefits are to continue for twenty years from the date of the treaty.
Qui-nai-elt, Qui-leh-utes, Hohs, and Quits.These Indians number 520,and have a reservation of 25,600 acres in the extreme eastern part of the territory, and almost whoIly isolated from white settlements, setapart under a, treaty made with them July 1, 1855. But one of the fourtribes mentioned, the Qui-nai-elts, live upon the reservation; the othersreside at different points along the coast, northward from the reserva-tion. These declare that they never agreed to sell their country, andthat they never knowingly signed any treaty disposing of their right toit. The bottom land on the reservation is heavily timbered, aud a greatdeal of labor is required to clear it; but, when cleared, it produces goodcrops. Many of the Indians, though in the main fish-eaters, (the Qui-nai-elt River furnishing them with salmon in great abundance,) are culti-vating small patches, and raise sufficient vegetables for their own use.One school is in operation on the reservation, with an attendance of 15scholars. Under the treaty referred to, appropriations are made annually, for the benefit of these Indians, as follows: For beneficial objects,$1,000, (two installments due, after which they are to receive $700annually for five 5 years;) for the support of an agricultural and industrial school, and pay of teacher, $2,500; for the employment of a blacksmith, farmer, carpenter, and physician, $4,100), and for the support of shops, $500. These appropriations, with the exception of the first, are to be made for twenty years from the date of the treaty.
Yakamas.The Yakamas number 3,000, and have a reservation in thesouthern part of the Territory, containing 783,360 acres set apart forthem by treaty of June 9, 1855. These Indians belong to numerousbands, confederated under the title of Yakamas. Many of them, underthe able management of their present agent, have become noticeablyadvanced iu civilization, and are good farmers or skilled mechanics.The manual-labor school at the Yakama agency has been a completesuccess, and of incalculable benefit in imparting to the children a prac-tical knowledge of farming and of the different mechanical arts. Theirprincipal wealth is in horses, of which they own 12,000. The fact thatthe reservation for these Indians is located east of the Cascade Mountains, away from all contact with the whites, has doubtless tended, in agreat measure, to make this what it isthe model agency on thePacific slope; though to this result the energy and devotion of AgentWilbur have greatly contributed. Churches have been built on thereservation, which are well attended, the services being conducted bynative preachers. There are at present two schools, with an attendanceof 44 scholars. Under the provisions of the treaty made with theseIndians in 1855, appropriations, to continue for a limited number ofyears, are made annually for their benefit, as follows: For beneficialobjects, $6,000, (two installments due, after which they are to receive$4,000 annually for five years;) for the support of schools, pay ofteachers, purchase of books, &c., $4,700; for employes of different kinds,$12,600; for keeping in repair shops, mills, hospitals, and agency-build-
ings, &c, $1,600; and for salary of head chief, $500. These appropriations, with the exception of the first item, are to continue twenty years from the date of the treaty.
Chehalis and others, remnants of tribes, and parties to no treaty with the Government.These Indians number about 600, and have a reservation of 4,322 acres in the eastern part of the Territory, set apart for them by Executive order of July 8, 1864. A considerable portion of the land in this reservation is excellent for agricultural purposes, and quite extensive crops are being raised by the Indians of the Chehalis tribe. Noneof the other tribes for whom the reservation was intended reside upon it, declining to do so for the reason that they do not recognize it as their own, and fear to prejudice their claims to other lands by so doing.
All these Indians have horses and cattle in abundance. They are industrious, and being good field-hands, those of them who do not farm on their own account, find ready employment from the surrounding farmers, their services always commanding the highest wages. Having no treaty relations with the Government, no direct appropriations are made for their benefit. They, however, receive some assistance from the general incidental fund of the Territory. The Indians herein referred to as not living upon the reservation, are of the Cowlitz, Chinook, Shoalwater Bay, and Humboldt tribes. They profess to desire a home at the mouth of the Humboldt and Chinoose Rivers, where they originated.
Colville and other tribes.These Indians, numberiug 3,349, occupy the northeastern portion of the Territory. They have no treaty relations with the Government, and, until the present year, have had no reservation set apart for them. They are now, however, to be established under an order of the President, of July 2, 1872, in the general section of the Territory where they now are, upon a tract which is bounded on the south and east by the Columbia River, on the west by the Okinakane River, and on the north by British Columbia. The tribes for whom this reservation is designed are known as Colvilles, Okinakanes, San Poels, Lake Spokanes, Cțur d'Alenes, Calispells, and Methows. Some of these Indians, however, have settled upon valuable tracts of land, and have made extensive improvements, while others, to a considerable number, have begun farming in a small way at various points within the district from which it is proposed to remove their respective tribes. It is doubtful whether these-individuals will voluntarily remove to the reservation referred to, which is some distance west of their present locations. It is proposed, therefore, to allow such as are engaged in farming to remain where they are, if they so desire. Owing to the influx of whites into the country thus claimed or occupied by these Indians, many of them have been crowded out, and some of them have had their own unquestionable improvements forcibly wrested from them. This for a time during the past summer caused considerable trouble, and serious difficulties were apprehended; but thus far peace has been preserved by a liberal distribution among them of agricultural implements, seeds, blankets, &c. No funds are appropriated specially for these Indians, such supplies and presents as are given them being furnished from the general incidental fund of the Territory.
They are all native to the country. On account of the great number of small tribes and bands in this State, the number of tribes and bands parties to the same treaty being in some cases as high as ten or fifteen, these Indians will be treated of, and the remarks concerning them will be made, under the heads of the agencies at which they are respectively located.
Umatilla agency.The tribes located at this agency are the Umatillas, Cayuses, and a portion of the Walla-Wallas, and number 837. They have a reservation of 512,000 acres, situated in the northeastern part of the State, set apart for them by treaty of June 9, 1855. This reservation is very fertile, and, as usual in such cases, has attracted the cupidity of the whites. A proposition was made last year, under the authority of Congress, to have the Indians take land in severalty, or sell and remove to some other reservation. The Indians, however, in the exercise of their treaty rights, refused to accede to this proposition. These Indians are successfully engaged in agricultural operations, are nearly self- supporting, and may be considered, comparatively speaking, wealthy. It is gratifying to state that the introduction of whisky by whites upon this reservation, and its sale to the Indians, has, during the last year, received a decided check through the vigilance of Agent Cornoyer in causing the the arrest and trial of four citizens for a violation of the law in this respect. All the parties charged were convicted, and are now in prisons. This is especially worthy of note, from the fact that withit is always exceedingly difficult to obtain convictions for such dealingwith Indians in any section of the country. There is one school in oper-ation on the reservation, with an attendance of 27 scholars. A manual-labor school is also very much needed. Under the treaty of 1855, appro-priations are being made annually for the benefit of these Indians, asfollows: For beneficial objects, $4,000; for the salaries and subsistenceof certain employes, including a physician and teachers, $11,200; forthe purchase of tools, medicines, books, and stationery for schools, re-pairs of buildings, &c. $3,000; and for salary of each of the head chiefs of the three tribes named, $500. These benefits are to continue for seven years from date.
Warm Springs agency.The Indians at this agency, known as the "Confederated tribes and bands of Indians in Middle Oregon," comprise seven bands of the Walla-Walla and Wasaco tribes, numbering 626. They have a reservation of l,024,000 acres, located in the central part of the State, set apart for them by the treaty of June 25, 1855. Though there is but little really good land in this reservation, many of the Indians, by reason of their industry, have succeeded measurably in their farming operations, and may be considered as self-sustaining. In morals they have greatly improved, so that polygamy, the buying and selling of wives, gambling, and drunkenness have ceased to be common among them, as in the past. There are some, however, who are disposed to wander off the reservation, and lead a vagabond life. But little advancement has been made in education among these Indians. One school is in operation at the agency, with an attendance of 51 scholars. Under the treaty made with these bands in 1855, they receive an annuity, in beneficial objects, for a limited period, of $4,000, (two stallments still due,) after which they are entitled to $2,000 annually, for five years. Employes are also maintained for their benefit, at an annual expense of $9,100. The head chief is paid $500 per annum by the Government.
Grand Ronde agency.--The Indians at this agency comprise the Molalla, Clackama, Calapooia, Molel, Umpqua, Rogue River, and other bands,
seventeen in all, with a total population of 870. The reservation upon which these bands are located, is in the northwestern part of the State. It contains 69,120 acres, and was set apart for their occupation by treaty of January 22, 1855, with the Molallas, Clackamas, &c., and by Executive order of June 30, 1857. Some portions of this reservation are well adapted to grain-raising, though much of it is rough and heavily timbered. An allotment of land in severalty has been directed to be made, much to the gratification and encouragement of the tribes. These Indians are inclined to industry, and show commendable zeal in cultivating their farms, growing crops which compare favorably with those of their white neighbors. Their customs and habits of life, also exhibit a marked improvement. One school is in operation, with an attendance of 50 scholars. Under the treaty of January 22, 1855, with the Molallas, Clackamas, &c., a limited annuity (two installments still due) of $5,500 in beneficial objects is provided for the bands parties to that treaty. By the treaty made with the Molels, December 21, 1855, provision is made for a manual-labor school for the beuefit of that tribe, at annual expense to the Government of $3,000. The treaty of November 29, 1854, with the Umpquas and Calapooias provided for a limited annuity (two installments still due) in beneficial objects of $1,000, and for salary of teacher, purchase of books, &c., at an expense to the Government of $1,450 per annum. The Cow Creek Band of Umpquas have alimited annuity of $550, (one installment still due,) in blankets, cloth-ing, &c., by treaty of September 19, 1853; and the Rogue River band, under treaty of September 10, 1853, also a limited annuity of $3,000, (two installments still due,) in blankets, clothing, farming utensils, and stock.
Siletz agency.The Indians at this agency are the Chasta Scotons and fragments of fourteen other bands, called generally Coast tribes, numbering altogether about 2,500. These Indians, including those at the Alsea sub-agency, have a reservation of 1,100,800 acres set apart for them by treaty of August 11, 1855, which treaty, however, has never been ratified, although the reservation is occupied by the Indians. They were for a long time much averse to labor for a support; but recently they have shown more disposition to follow agriculture, although traditionally accustomed to rely chiefly upon fish for food. Many already have their farms well fenced and stocked, with good, comfortable dwellings and out-houses erected thereon. There is no reason why they should not, in time, become a thoroughly prosperous people. The failure to make allotments of land in severalty, for which surveys were commenced in 1871, has been a source of much uneasiness to the Indians, and has tended to weaken their confidence in the good intentions of the Government. One school is in operation on the reservation, with an attendance of 20 scholars. None of the tribes or bands at this agency have any treaty relations with the United States, unless it may be a few members of the Rogue River band, referred to under the head of the Grand Ronde agency. All the assistance rendered these Indians is out of funds appropriated for the general incidental expenses of the service in Oregon.
Alsea sub-agency.The Indians at this sub-agency are the Alseas, Coosas, Sinselans, and a band of Umpquas, numbering in all 300, and are located within the limits of the reservation referred to uuder the head of the Siletz agency. The remarks made about the Indians at the Siletz agency will generally apply to the Indians of this sub-agency. The Coosas, Sinselans, and Umpquas are making considerable advancement in agriculture, and, had they advantages of instruction, would rapidly acquire a proficiency in the simpler mechanical branches of industry. The Al-
seas are not so tractable, and exhibit but little desire for improvement. All the assistance they receive from the Government is supplied out of the limited amount appropriated for the general incidental expenses of the service in Oregon.
Klamath agency.The Indians belonging to this agency are the Klamaths, and Modocs, and the Yahooskin, and Wal-pah-pee bands of Snakes, numbering altogether about 4,000, of whom only 1,018 are reported at the agency. They have a reservation containing 768,000 acres, set apart for them by the treaty of October 14, 1864, and by Executive order of March 14, 1871, situated in the extreme southern portion of the State. This reservation is not well adapted to agriculture. The climate is cold and uncertain, and the crops are consequently liable to be destroyed by frosts. It is, however, a good grazing country. Although this reservation is, comparatively speaking, a new one, the Indians located upon it are making commendable progress, both in farming operations and in lumbering. A part of the Miodocs, who belong by treaty to this agency, and who were at one time located upon the reservation, have on account of their troubles with the Klamathsdue principally to the overbearing disposition of the latterleft the agency and refuse to return to it. They desire to locate upon a small reservation by themselves. Under the circumstances, they should be permitted to do this, or else be allowed to select a tract on the Malheur reservation. There is no school at present in operation for these Indians. Under treaty of October 1864, with the Klamaths, &c., appropriations for their benefit are being made for a limited number of years, as follows: For beneficiall objects, $5,000, (three installments still due, after which they become entitled to $3,000 annually for five years;) for keeping in repair the mills, shops, and buildings, $1,000; for purchase of tools, materials for mills and shops, and books and stationery for school, $1,500; and for salaries and subsistence of various employes, including physician and teachers, $9,600. The Wal-pah-pee band of Snakes, under the treaty made with that band August 12, 1865, have a limited annuity (nine installments still due) in benefical ob}ects of $1,200.
Malheur reservation.This reservation set apart by Executive order of September 12, 1872, is situated in the southeastern part of the State. Upon this it is the intention of the Department eventually to locate a11 the roving and straggling bands in Eastern and Southeastern Oregon, which can be induced to settle there. As no funds are at the disposal of the Department with which to make the necessary improvements, and to provide temporary subsistence for Indians removed, the work has not yet been fairly commenced. The Indians who should be collected upon this reservation are now a constant source of annoyance to the white settlers. They hang about the settlements and military posts, begging and stealing, and unless some prompt measures be taken to bring them under the care and control of an agent of the Government, serious trouble may result at any time. Congress should make the necessary appropriation during the coming session to maintain an agent for these Indians, to erect the agency buildings, and to provide subsistence for such as may be collected and remain upon the reservation.
Indians not upon reservations.-There are a number of Indians, probably not less than 3,000, "renegades," and others of roving habits~ who have no treaty relations with the Government, and are not in charge of any agent. The tribal names of some of these are the Clatsops, NestucaIs, Tillamooks, Nehalims, Snakes, and Nez Perces. The "renegades," such in fact and so called, roam on the Columbia River, and are of consid-
erable annoyance to the agents at Warm Springs and Umatilla; others, the Snakes, 200 in number, are upon the edge of the Grande Ronde reservation. These live by hunting and fishing, and profess to desire to have lands allotted to them, and a school provided for their children. The Nez Perces, belonging in Idaho, to the estimated number of 200, are found in Wallowa Valley, in the eastern part of the State. They claim that they were not parties to the treaty with the Nez Perces tribe years ago; that the valley in which they live has always belonged to them, and they strenuously oppose its settlement by the whites.
The tribes in California are the Ukie, Pitt River, Wylackie, Concon, Redwood, Humboldt, Hoonselton, Miscott, Siah, Tule, Tejon, Coahuila, King's River, and various other bands and tribes, including the "Mission Indians," all being native to the country.
Round Valley agency.The Indians belonging to this agency are the Ukies, Concons, Pitt Rivers, Wylackies, and Redwoods, numbering in all 1,700. The number has been increased during the past year by bringing in 1,040 Indians collected in Little Lake and other valleys. A reservation containing 31,683 acres has been set apart per act of April 8, 1864, and Executive order of March 30, 1870, in the western and northern part of the State, for these Indians, and for such others as may be induced to locate thereon. The lands in the reservation are very fertile, and the climate admits of a widely varied growth of crops. More produce being raised than is necessary for the subsistence of the Indians, the proceeds derived from the sale of the surplus are used in purchasing stock and work animals, and for the further improvement of the reservation. Several of the Indians are engaged in cultivating gardens, while others work as many as twenty-five or thirty acres on their own account.
The Indians on this reservation are uniformly quiet and peaceable, notwithstanding that they are much disturbed by the white trespassers. Suits, by direction of the Department, were commenced against such trespassers, but without definite results as yet, the Attorney-General having directed the United States district attorney to suspend proceedings. Of this reservation the Indian Department has in actual possession and under fence only about 4,000 acres, the remainder being in the possession of settlers, all clamorous for breaking up the reservation and driving the Indians out. Superintendent Whiting suggests that legislation be had by Congress in the matter without delay.
The Indians at this reservation have shown no especial disposition to have their children educated, and no steps were taken to that end until in the summer of 1871, when a school was commenced. There is now one school in operation, with an attendance of 110 scholars. These Indians have no treaties with the Government, and such assistance as is rendered them in the shape of clothing, &c, is from the money appropriated for the general incidental expenses of the Indian service in the State.
Hoopa Valley agency.The Indians belonging to this agency are the Humboldts, Hoonsoltons, Miscolts, Siahs, and several other bands, numbering 725.
A reservation was set apart per act of April 8, 1864, for these and such other Indians in the northern part of the State as mnight be in induced to settle thereon. This reservation is situated in the northwestern part of the State, on both sides of the Tinity River, and contains 38,400 acres. As a rule, sufficient is raised on the reservation to supply the wants of the Indians. These Indians are quiet and peaceable, and are not disposed to labor on the reservation in common, but will work
industriously when allowed to do so on their own individual account. One school is in operation on the reservation, with an attendance of 74 scholars. Having no treaty relations with the United States, and, consequently, no regular annuities appropriated for their benefit, the general incidental fund of the State is used so far as may be necessary, and so far as the amount appropriated will admit, to furnish assistance in the shape of clothing, agricultural implements, seeds, &c. Besides these, their agent has a general supervisory control of certain Klamath Indians, who live adjacent to the reservation and along the banks of the Klamath River. These formerly belonged to a reservation bearing their name, which was, years ago, abandoned in consequence of the total destruction of agency buildings and improvements by flood. They now support themselves chiefly by hunting and fishing, and by cultivating patches in grain and vegetables. It is recommended by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for California that the Hoopa Valley reservation be extended so as to include these Indians.
Tule River farm or agency.The Indians 1ocated at this point are theTule and Manaches, numbering 374. About sixty miles from the agency reside several hundred King's River Indians, who are in a wretched and destitute condition. They desire to be attached to the agency, and have in the past received occasional supplies of food from it.
The agency is located in the central part of the State, and consists ofa farm of 1,280 acres, leased from T. P. Maden, at an anuual rental of $1,920, with about 500 acres of Government land adjoining. This landis very productive, but the drought prevailing generally for several years past in that section of the State has rendered the crops almost entire failures. In my opinion the farm now leased from Mr. Maden should be purchased by the Government, or another location should be selected for the Indians located at this agency, in order that improvements necessary to be made in the successful prosecution of farming operations may be made upon Government land, or land owned by the Indians instead of upon private property. These Indians are gradually improving; are quite proficient in all kinds of farm-work, and show a good disposition to cultivate the soil on their own account. There is one school in operation at the Tule River farm, with an attendance of 37 scholars. Assistance is on occasion rendered these Indians out of the general incidental fund of the State.
Indians not on reservations.In addition to the Indians located at the three agencies named, there are probably not less than 20,000, includiug the Mission Indians, so called, the Coahuilas, Owen's River, and others in the southern part of the State and those on the Klamath, Trinity, Scott, and Salmon Rivers, in the northern part. The Mission Indians, having been for the past century under the Catholic missions established on the California coast are tolerably well advanced in agriculture, and compare favorably with the most highly civilized tribes of the East. The Coahuilas and others inhabiting the southeastern and eastern portions of the State, and those in the north, support themselves by working for white settlers or by hunting, fishing, begging, and stealing, except, it may be, a few of the northern Indians, who go occasionally to the reservations and the military posts in that section for assistance in the way of food.
There are also about 4,000 Owen's River and Manache Indians east of the Sierras, whom the settlers would gladly see removed to a reservation, and brought under the care of an agent. The Department has under consideration the propriety of establishing a new reservation, upon which shall be concentrated these and numerous other Indians, in which event the Tule River agency could advantageously be discontinued.