city park link

1915 expo

1935 expo

world war 2

1950's to the 1960s

1970s to the 1980s

visual essay link


1970s to the 1980s



Click the above link for a PDF copy of the bibliography.

Primary Sources

Amero, Richard. Balboa Park Expositions.

Amero, Richard Collection MS 76. San Diego Historical Society: 1800-2004.

Associated Press, 1971-1979. (Access through Lexus Nexus Database)

Balboa Park Expositions 1915-1936. San Diego: San Diego Historical Society, 1982.

Avalos, David, Professor of Art at Cal State San Marcos. Interview by author, 16 March 2009, San Marcos. Tape recording.

Bisbee, Frederick A. A California Pilgrimage: A Souvenir of the United Universalist Conventions, California 1915. Boston: The Murray Press, 1915.

Brookman, Philip and Guillermo Gomez-Pena, eds. Made in Aztlan. Tolteca Publications, Centro Cultural de la Raza: La Mesa, 1986.

California State Legislature. Final Calendar of Legislative Business. Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1921.

Center for City Park Excellence of the Trust for Public Land. "The Soul of San Diego
Keeping Balboa Park Magnificent: In its Second Century." San Diego: Trust for Public Land, 2008.

Deering, James H., ed. General Laws of the State of California. San Francisco: Bancroft- Whitney Company, 1916.

Department of Tresurary. Digest of Appropriations for the Support of the Government of the United States for the service of the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1920. Washington DC: GPO, 1920.

Department of Navy. Annual Report of the Surgeon General, 1920. Washington, DC: GPO, 1920.

Environmental Impact Report: Balboa Park Development and Management Plan. By Diana L. Dugan, Deputy Director, City Planning Department. San Diego: 1986.

Estrada Land Planning and City of San Diego Planning Department. Balboa Park: Master Plan. San Diego: 25 July 1989.

Colby, Frank Moore, ed. The New International Yearbook: A Compendium of the World's Progress for the Year 1916. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1917.

Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor. The Architecture and the Gardens of the San Diego Exposition. San Francisco: Paul Elder & Company, 1916.

Harland Bartholomew and Associates, City Planners, Civil Engineers, Landscape Architects. Master Plan for Balboa Park: San Diego, California. St. Louis: Harland Bartholomew and Associates, 1960.

"History of Pride and San Diego LGBT Timeline." San Diego LGBT Pride Website.

James, George Wharton. Exposition Memories: Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, 1916. Pasadena: The Radiant Life Press, 1917.

Los Angeles Times, 1915-1986.

Neuhaus, Eugen. The San Diego Garden Fair: Personal Impressions of the Architecture, Sculpture Horticulture, Color Scheme & Other Aesthetic Aspects of the Panama California International Exposition. San Francisco Paul Elder and Company, 1916.

New York Times, 1915-1986.

Nolen, John. City Plan for San Diego California. Harvard Square: Cambridge Mass., 1926

Nolen, John. San Diego, A Comprehensive City Plan for San Diego. San Diego, 1926.

Price, C. Matlack. "The Panama-California Exposition. San Diego, California. Bertram G. Goodhue and the Renaissance of the Spanish-Colonial Architecture." Architectural Record, January-June, 229-252.

Quinney, Lucius M. Balboa Park Visitor Study: The Balboa Park Management and Development Study. San Diego: Perspectives, 1982.

Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives. Boston: Bedford/St Martins, 1996.

San Diego Union-Tribune, 1914-2009.

Sixty-seventh Congress, Committee on Naval Affairs. Hearings before the Committee on naval affairs of the House of Representatives on sundry legislation affecting the naval establishment, 1921. Washington, DC: GPO, 1921.

Smythe, William Ellsworth. San Diego and Imperial Counties, California: A Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress and Achievement. Chicago: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1913.

San Diego Navy Historical Association, Inc. Preserving San Diego's Naval Heritage.

Sutro, Dirk. San Diego Architecture: From Missions to Modern: A Guide to the Buildings, Planning, People and Spaces that Shape the Region. San Diego: San Diego Architectural Foundation, 2002.

Taylor, Graham Romeyn. "Recreational Developments in Chicago Parks." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 35, no. 2 (1910): 88-105.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. National Register of Historic Places, Balboa Park. Washington, DC: GPO, 1977.

Washington Post, 1978.

Secondary Sources

Aravot, Iris. "Narrative-Myth and Urban Design." Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 2 (1995): 79-91.

Avery, Ralph Emmett. The Greatest Engineering Feat in the World at Panama. New York: Leslie-Judge Company, 1915.

Bachin, Robin F. Building the South Side: Urban Space and Civic Culture in Chicago 1890- 1919. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Bednar, Michael. L'Efant's Legacy: Public Open Spaces in Washington D.C. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

Berry, Brian J.L. and James O. Wheeler, eds. Urban Geography in America 1950-2000: Paradigms and Personalities. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Best, Gary Dean. The Nickel and Dime Decade: American Popular Culture During the 1930's. Westport Connecticut: Praeger, 1993.

Bokovoy, Matthew F. The San Diego World's Fairs and Southwestern Memory, 1880-1940. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005.

Carmona, Matthew, Tim Heath, Taner Oc, and Steve Tiesdell. Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press, 2003.

Carr, Stephen, Mark Francis, Leanne G. Rivlin, and Andrew M. Stone. Public Space. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Chase, John. "Consumerism in American Architecture." Journal of Architectural Education 44, no. 4 (1991): 211-224.

Chase, John. "Unvernacular: Contemporary American Architecture." Design Quarterly, no. 131 (1986): 1-32.

Davis, Susan G. "Landscapes of Imagination: Tourism in Southern California." The Pacific Historical Review 68, no. 2 (1999): 173-191.

Davis, Susan G. Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

DeLyser, Dydia. "Ramona Memories: Fiction, Tourist Practices, and Placing the Past in Southern California."Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93, no. 4 (2003):886-908.

DeLyser, Dydia. Ramona Memories: Tourism and the Shaping of Southern California. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 2005.

Fernandez-Florez, Dario. The Spanish Heritage in the United States. Madrid: Publicaciones Espanolas, 1971.

Fisher, Charles E. "Promoting the Preservation of Historic Buildings: Historic Preservation Policy in the United States." APT Bulletin 29 no. 3/4 (1998): 7-11.

Fitch, James Marston. American Building 2: The Environmental Forces That Shape It. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.

Fotsch, Paul Mason. "The Building of a Superhighway Future at the New York World's Fair." Cultural Critique Spring, no. 48 (2001): pp. 65-97.

Gebhard, David. "Spanish Colonial Revival in Southern California (1895-1930)," The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 26, no. 2 (1967): 131-147.

Gilfoyle, Timothy J. Millennium Park: Creating a Chicago Landmark. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Goldman, Eric F. Historiography and Urbanization: Essays in American History in Honor of W. Stull Holt. Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1941.

Greenard, Stephen Neil. "A Brief History of Progress." The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 2, (1986): 46-59.

Gutheim, Frederick A. "Federal Participation in Two World's Fairs." The Public Opinion Quarterly 3, no. 4 (1939): 608-622.

Haas, Lisbeth. Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769-1936. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Hardy, Stephen. How Boston Played: Sport, Recreation, and Community 1865-1915. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1982.

Hayden, Dolores. Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820-2000. New York: Random House Publishing, 2003.

Hayden, Dolores. "The Power of Place: A Proposal for Los Angeles." The Public Historian 10, no. 3 (1988): 5-18.

Hayden, Dolores. The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1997.

Henderson, John D., ed. San Diego AIA Guide. American Institute of Architects, San Diego Chapter, 1971.

Hobsbawm, Eric and Terence Ranger. The Invention of Tradition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Huxtable, Ada Louise. Kicked a Building Lately? New York: The New York Times Book Co., 1976.

Isenberg, Alison. Downtown America: A History of the Place and People Who Made It. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Kropp, Phoebe S. California Vieja: Culture and Memory in a Modern American Place. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Levine, Edward J. Central Park. Charleston SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2008.

Lotchin, Roger W. The Bad City in the Good War: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Oakland, and San Diego. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Lovelace, Eldridge. Harland Bartholomew: His Contributions to American Urban Planning. Urbana Illinois: University of Illinois Office of Printing Services, 1993. (

Marchand, Roland. "The Designers Go to the Fair: Walter Dorwin Teague and the Professionalization of Corporate Industrial Exhibits, 1933-1940."Design Issues 8, no. 1 (Autumn, 1991): 4-17.

McMillian, Elizabeth. California Colonial: The Spanish and Rancho Revival Style. Atglan, PA: Schiffer Publishers, 2002.

Monkkonen, Eric H. America Becomes Urban: The Development of U.S. Cities and Towns, 1780-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Nelson, Steve. "Walt Disney's EPCOT and the World's Fair Performance Tradition." The Drama Review 30, no. 4 (Winter, 1986): 106-146.

Ovnick, Merry and Carol Monteverde. Los Angeles: The End of the Rainbow. Balcony Press: Los Angeles, 1994.

Pitt, Leonard. California Controversies: Major Issues in the History of the State. Atlanta: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1968.

Rodolff, Ronald C. "The Reading Plan; A Study in Action and Community Response, 1909- 1910. Part I; The Nolen Plan." Historical Review of Berks County 36, no. 2 (1971): 46- 57.

Rosenzweig, Roy and Elizabeth Blackmar. The Park and the People: A History of Central Park. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Schiesl, Laura A. "Problems in Paradise; Citizen Activism and Rapid Growth in San Diego, 1970-1990." Southern California Quarterly 83, no. 2 (2001): 181-220.

Shteir, Rachel. Striptease: The Untold History of the Girlie Show. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Starr, Kevin. Inventing the Dream: California Through the Progressive Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Starr, Kevin. The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Strong, Major General Frederick S. History of the Fortieth (Sunshine) Division. Los Angeles: C.S. Huston & Co., 1920.

Talen, Emily. New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Tournikiotis, Panayotis. The Historiography of Modern Architecture. Cambridge: MIT, 1999.

Taylor, Hilary A. "Urban Public Parks, 1840-1900: Design and Meaning." Garden History 23, no. 2 (1995): 201-221.

Weitze, Karen. California's Mission Revival. Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, 1984.

Werenfels, Martha L. "Frederick Law Olmsted and His Firm's Private Clients: An Unexamined Facet of Olmsted's Approach to Nature in the City." Rhode Island History 53, no. 2 (1995): 38-57.

Wilson, William H. The City Beautiful Movement. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Young, Terence. "Modern Urban Parks." Geographical Review 85, no. 4 (1995): 535-551.

Zaitzevsky, Cynthia. Frederick Law Olmstead and the Boston Park System. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1982.