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Smith to Secretary of the Interior, 1 November 1875, in United States, Office of Indian Affairs, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary for the Year 1875 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1875), 61-80, NADP Document R875001D.
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wheat, cotton, tobacco, &c., has been gathered than ever before. During the year a flouring-mill and cotton-gin have been brought into successful operation, and large expenditures made for improved agricultural machinery, while various families of the tribe have purchased sewing-machines and cabinet-organs for their households.
      The three boarding-schools, with their 200 pupils, have had continued success. The 36 day-schools, with an estimated attendance of 600, labor under many disadvantages, because of the scattered population and the impracticability of teaching English thoroughly during the brief daily session. A "Teacher's Institute" was held by the Creeks during the year. The second territorial fair, held at Muskogee, was a decided success, bringing together representatives from all the various tribes to strive for the mastery in a way quite unusual among Indians.
      The need of a United States Court for a more efficient administration of law becomes every day more apparent and urgent.

CROWS.

      The Mountain and River Crows, numbering respectively 3,000 and 1,200, have a reservation, bounded by the Yellowstone River, the 107th meridian, and the north boundary-line of Wyoming; but most of the River Crows roam north of the Missouri River, where they fall an easy prey to the vices and bad whisky of degraded white men. This year, for the first time, the River Crows have been at the agency in a body. A careful count shows their number to vary little from that previously reported. They promise to remain on the reservation during the coming winter. With plenty of buffalo and liberal annuities, and other large amounts realized from the sale of robes and peltries, the Crows are entirely comfortable and prosperous, according to their savage ideal. Abundance of game, illicit whisky-trading, and incessant warfare with the Sioux, are the main obstacles in the way of their civilization.
      The second obstacle has been decidedly modified by the removal of the agency from the Yellowstone River to a location fifteen miles from the river, on Rosebud Creek. Twelve convenient and substantial buildings have been completed since June, and ten more are in process of erection. This work has been pushed forward with the greatest difficulty and peril, owing to frequent raids by the Sioux, who annually invade the Crow reservation. Three men at work for the agency and five others have been murdered, and a large number of beef and work-animals have been stampeded or killed. Employés have been obliged to carry arms as well as tools, and to labor in parties much larger than the necessities of the work would require. The lndians, full of war and revenge, have no thought to bestow upon farming or other peaceful employment, especially as the best farming-lands of the reservation are most exposed to these hostile incursions. Six families, however, have been induced to tend small farms, and have succeeded well. A mile and a half of ditch, sufficient to irrigate several hundred acres, has been dug, and it is hoped that another season will see at least a beginning made toward the civilization of these 4,000 wild, but always loyal, Crows.

DELAWARES.

      The Delawares were originally a powerful tribe, in the vicinity of the Susquehanna River. After their removal to Ohio, they became a thrifty, prosperous community. But after a series of removals, each one of which has brought them into contact with a new set of the worst class


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of men found upon the extreme border, they have at last reached the Indian Territory, where 1,000 have been incorporated with the Cherokees, and show in their habits of dissipation and unthrift the debasing effects of the process of removals of which they have been the victims for two generations. The thirty Delawares on the Kiowa and Comanche reservation obtain about half their subsistence by agriculture, but have not yet adopted citizens' dress, nor do they live in houses.
      The Caddoes in the Wichita agency include sixty-one Delawares, who last year united with the Caddoes under one chief, and assumed their tribal name, and who have long had the reputation of being, next to the Caddoes, the most industrious and advanced in civilization of all the tribes in that agency.

ETAKMURS.

      They will be referred to hereafter under the head of Snohomish Indians.

FLATHEADS.

      The Jocko reservation, in the valley of the Jocko River, surrounded by the mountains of Northwestern Montana, contains 2,240 square miles. Most of it is unsurpassed for grazing and timber, and 1,500 acres are tillable. In the treaty of 1855, by which a large territory which they had long held in undisputed possession was ceded to the United States by the Flathead Indians, who were then quite largely engaged in agriculture in the valley of the Bitter Root, the question of their permanent location in that valley or their removal to the Jocko reservation was left undecided. Owing to the increasing number of settlements on the Bitter Root Valley, made at first by the permission and even invitation of the friendly-disposed chief of the Flatheads, after a lapse of seventeen years it was decided that these Indians should either take up lands and become citizens or remove to the Jocko.
      Both propositions met with decided opposition, but two of the three chiefs were finally induced to sign an agreement to move, and in 1873 one chief with 20 families consisting of 81 persons, took possession of twenty houses, built, according to agreement, in the vicinity of the old agency farm. These Indians are considerably advanced in civilization, and depend entirely on farming for support. The chief, Arlee, has recently decided to organize a police force, and to punish crimes by fines or work for the benefit of the tribe. For the Flatheads and 1,185 Pend d'Oreilles and Kootenays there are one boarding-school for girls and one day-school, having an attendance of 45 pupils.
      The remaining 350 Flatheads, under two chiefs, are still in the Bitter Root Valley, and hold no communication with the agency, and are trying to maintain themselves on their farms. Whether they will prove equal to the competition which the settlements have brought around them, and be able to save their property from sheriff's sale by prompt payment of taxes, is yet a question. Amid the eager desire to gain possession of their valuable farms, there will be few days of grace after the taxes are due.

GROS VENTRES.

      Though never failing in their friendship to the Government, the tribe, as a whole, have taken no steps out of barbarism.
      Six hundred Gros Ventres at Fort Berthold, Dakota, have already been referred to in connection with the Arickarees. They, with the Mandans, speak the same language as the Crows, and if they could be induced to


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join them on the Yellowstone, could be readily assisted in beginning a civilized life. But they are not yet ready to leave their wretched country.
      Nothing is being done for the 950 Gros Ventres in the Fort Belknap agency, in Montana, beyond distributing annuities and furnishing a few rations. Their principal and favorite source of supply being the chase, buffalo, still found in large numbers in their vicinity, furnish their principal source of supply, as well as furs for barter.

HOHS.

      They are a small tribe of 115 Indians who belong to the Quinaielt agency in Washington Territory, but with the Quillehutes are living on lands north of the reservation-limits. Remarks in regard to the latter tribe will apply to the Hohs.

HOOPAS.


       The Hoopas are native to the valley of the Trinity River, in California, in which the Hoopa Valley reservation is located. They number 571, generally wear citizens' dress, and live in houses half under ground. A few work on the agency-farm and seem to have made a genuiue attempt at reform, but the majority prefer to live on roots and acorns gathered by the women; and, from long proximity to a military garrison, within the limits of the reservation, are most deplorably licentious and diseased. Frequent recommendations and requests have been made by agents, one of them an officer in the Army, that Camp Gaston be removed to a point twelve or fifteen miles distant from the reservation. A school was closed after being maintained four months, the results not being such as to justify the expenditures.

HUALAPAIS.

      Eighteen months ago the Hualapais were removed trom Beale's Springs, in Arizona, to the southern part of the Colorado River reserve, in the vicinity of a military post established to prevent their return to their old haunts. On the approach of the planting-season, the agent removed them without difficulty thirty miles nearer the agency, with the intention of compelling them to labor in return for rations; but soon after, owing largely to bad influences from without, they suddenly left the reservation in a body. The commander of the post refused to pursue, and the Indians having been supplied with arms by that officer, the agent was powerless to prevent their escape. It has been decided, in accordance with the recommendation of the general in command, to allow them to remain in their old range during good behavior. They number 620. The military post has been abandoned, and marked improvement in the health of the other Indians of the reservation has resulted therefrom.

IONIES.

      These Indians are included under Caddoes.

IOWAS.

      The Iowas, 219 in number, as reported last year, live in houses on a fertile reservation in Southern Nebraska, are all engaged in agriculture, having as well-tilled farms as the neighboring settlers, and, without Government compensation for their labor, are raising larger crops than are


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required for their own consumption. Their perseverance through two "grasshopper years" and the energy displayed this year in the planting of most of their corn for the third time; the attendance of nearly one-fourth of their number at school, and the ability of nearly half of the tribe to read; their self government in accordance with a code of laws to which obedience is enforced by a police force of five Indians, receiving salaries of 840 per annum from the tribal funds, place these Iowas in the front rank of the civilized Indian tribes of the country, who need as their gift from the Government, and more than anything else, the rights and protection of American citizenship.

KAWS.

      The Kaws are native to Kansas and removed in 1873 to the north-west corner of the Osage reservation in the Indian Territory. They number 516. Nearly one-fourth of the tribe wear citizens' dress and live in houses. All the families are engaged in agriculture, and more than one-tenth of the population are in school. Previous to removal, though receiving generous Government aid, they showed no disposition to labor and often suffered from want. The following, from report of Agent Gibson, shows that they are now making satisfactory progress in the right direction:

      The Kaws have been on their reservation about two years, and have made good progress, particularly during the last year, under the stimulating influence of the law requiring labor for their rations. They have been subsisted in this manner from their own funds, provided by Congress.
      Each family now has a claim, under Government survey, recorded in this office. Over 150,000 rails have been split, and nearly all laid up in good fence on their farms. They are building houses, and otherwise manifesting an interest in civilization that they have not heretofore done. Their corn is estimated at 11,600 bushels. About 600 acres of prairie has been broken for them, a considerable portion of which they are preparing to sow in wheat.
      A steam grist and saw mill has been erected for them; also a commodious barn for the school-farm. Both these buildings are of stone. The school has been well attended and successfully managed during the year, averaging about 45 pupils. Meetings for worship and Sabbath-schools are well sustained.

KEAWAHS.

      They, with the Wichumnies, are in the vicinity of Humboldt County, California, and were reported by Agent Maltby, in 1872, as numbering about 230. They speak Spanish, wear citizens' dress, and are said to subsist comfortably, but do not accumulate property. Several petitions for their removal have been signed by citizens, but no suitable location has yet been provided.

KING RIVER INDIANS.

      They were also reported by Agent Maltby as numbering about 585. They are scattered along King and Kern Rivers, and are more destitute than the Keawahs.

KEECHIES.

      They will be referred to under the head of Wichitas.

KICKAPOOS.

      The original home of the Kickapoos was Illinois. When forced to leave that State they emigrated to Kansas, and from thence a part of the tribe fled to Mexico. By the treaty of 1862, the Kickapoos received


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their share of the tribal funds, and became citizens. Those remaining on the reservation number 280, whose intelligence, thrift, and prosperity are fully commented upon in my last report. The Kickapoos in Mexico were two years ago visited by a special commission, whose efforts were successful in inducing about 300 to remove to the Indian Territory and settle on the North Fork of the Canadian River. A second attempt made this year has resulted in the removal of 114 more, who arrived at the agency in July last. They have cultivated during the year 63 acres, raised 1,200 bushels of corn, and split 23,440 rails. A school-house for their use is in process of erection. In regard to what has been done, their agent says:

      The Mexican Kickapoas were placed under my care in the early part of the autumn of 1874, and as they had nothing with which to gain a subsistence by labor, I bought and distributed to the principal families 30 two-horse wagons, 61 plows, 58 hoes, 54 shovels, 73 iron wedges, and such other articles as would enable them to farm successfully. As they had no teams used to work, I furnished them 22 mules, with good harness, and 26 gentle oxen, with yokes and chains complete. But after spending twelve years roving from place to place in quest of plunder, as they have, it is rather a sudden change to settle down to quiet farm-work, and they have not done as much as they might. And yet they have done as well as any one acquainted with their former life could expect, and, everything considered, there are hopeful signs of their becoming settled and peaceable Indians. They are not lazy, as their flying marauding trips have educated them to be sharp and stirring, and, once thoroughly interested in farming, they will excel most other tribes.

KIOWAS.

      On the opening of hostilities in the Indian Territory nearly eighteen months ago, fully nine-tenths of the Kiowas at the Kiowa and Comanche agency in the southwestern part of that Territory were enrolled as friendly to the Government, but a considerable number of those thus enrolled, reaching one-third of the 1,050 Kiowas, fled from the loyal camp in fright, as is claimed by their agent, at the time of the Wichita fight, and were afterward obliged to surrender to the military as "hostiles." Twenty-six leading Kiowa chiefs and braves, including Swan and the noted raider and murderer Lone Wolf, were taken to Fort Marion with other Cheyenne and Comanche captives. The Kiowas have recently sustained a severe loss in the death of Kicking Bird, who, though young man, was the head chief of the tribe. He abandoned raiding several years ago, and determined to make his reputation by loyalty to the Government and effort to promote the elevation of his people; it was largely due to his influence that the Kiowas, who were as wild and savage as their neighbors, the Comanches, took so small a part in the late hostilities. His dying request, to be buried after the "white man's way," was carefully fulfilled.
      Fifty-eight men have this year taken hold of the plow and hoe, and, without assistance by the women, have cultivated 175 acres in corn, which has yielded on the average 25 bushels to the acre. This is the first step ever taken by the Kiowas in the direction of self-support, and most fortunately it has occurred in a season unprecedentedly favorable for a crop. From an observation, extending over many years, it is not safe to expect such exemption from drought as will promise a fair crop oftener than once in three years.
      Twenty Kiowa children, as many as could be accommodated in connection with the Comanches, have spent their first year in the boarding-school.

KLAMATHS.

      Around a lake of the same name, in the southern part of the Klamath reservation, in Southern Oregon, are located 546 Klamath Indians,


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who, with Schonchin's band of Modocs, were parties to the treaty of 1874, which defined the boundary of their reservation, and provided for the erection of a saw and grist mill, and the employment of teachers and other employés to the number of ten, besides the agent. All the Indians wear citizens' dress, and a few live in houses. During the year they have been more or less engaged in cutting and hauling saw-logs, splitting rails, putting up a few houses, and cultivating about 100 acres of land. Their crops were destroyed by frost, which occurs so late in the spring as to render agriculture very discouraging, if not impracticable. Their reservation affords fine pasturage all the year round, and to stock-raising must these people look as the avenue by which they are to come up to self-support. To this end, a herd of three hundred head of stock-cattle was purchased last year and distributed to the Indians. Their first year's experiment in caring for their own herds has been satisfactory, and leaves no question as to the practicability of providing for the Indians in the manner proposed. At present roots, berries, and fish form the chief part of their subsistence. The boarding-school, with 23 pupils is prospering.
      About 1,125 Lower Klamaths are scattered along the Klamath River, in California, from its junction with the Trinity to the ocean, about 43 being included within the limits of Hoopa Valley reserve. They frequently visit Hoopa Valley agency for medical aid, and occasionally receive a little assistance from the agent at that place, in the way of blankets and supplies. They formerly belonged to the old Klamath reservation, which was established in 1853, and extended from the mouth of that river to within about 20 miles of the boundaries of Hoopa Valley reservation, but was abandoned in 1862, owing to destruction of the agency by flood. Another agency was established, on rented lands, at Smith River, but the Klamaths never removed thither, being unwilling to leave their original home. From a report of an expedition down the river, made in May last, by Lieutenant Wilson, of Camp Gaston, the following extracts in regard to the present condition of these Indians are taken:

      Commencing at the mouth of the river, I examined each Indian village and counted the homes, with the following results: Total number of houses, exclusive of sweathouses and other small buildings not occupied as dwellings, 225. I have included in this, Pac-ta, 13, and As-le ga, 6. These villages were situated within the limit of the Indian reservation, but, as I understand, do not partake of the benefits of the agency, and are not treated as reservation Indians.
      The usual estimate, from all I could learn, is an average of five persons to the house, making, from the mouth of the river to and including the village at the junction of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, 1,125 Indians, of every age, sex, and condition. I am inclined to the opinion, however, that five to the house is a very liberal estimate. A very large proportion of these Indians, both old and young, are in a miserable condition physically, the result of venereal diseases, and their numbers are fast decreasing.
      They seem to lay in great abundance of food, which consists principally of fish (salmon and sturgeon) and acorns. These articles they lay in, in the proper season, in large quantities, enough to subsist on until the next year. In every house I examined I found large supplies of food on hand, much of it having remained over from last year. A great number of the young men go out and work for white men, principally in the cultivation and digging of potatoes, around Humboldt Bay. In this way some of them have learned how to cultivate the soil and build log and board cabins, a few of which are now substituted for the old style of Indian house, such as seen in this valley.
      Farming, however, is not carried on to any extent, only here and there a very small patch of potatoes. The only place worthy of note in this connection is the village of Warsoc, where they have nice gardens, well fenced, with irrigating-ditches, and in a high state of cultivation. They also have over eighty young fruit-trees out, all looking well. This state of things is due to the advice and assistance of Mr. Martin, who has lived adjoining them nineteen years. From the testimony of all the white men I talked to on this trip, the Indians seem to be given to petty thieving whenever opportunity offers. I might also mention that they are sometimes very exorbitant in their charges for ferriage across the river, and threatening in cases of remonstrance.


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      They say that they are doing well enough, and do not want to be on a reservation, not even desiring their own country set aside for that purpose; or, at least, they do not want to be subject to an agent, and the regulations of a reservation.
      These Indians do not seem to object to mining on the river, nor do I think they would object seriously to the lumber busienss being carried on; but they do not like cattle-ranches in their country, on account of the destruction of the acorns, nuts, berries, &c., and driving away the game; and I am of the opinion that the establishment by white men of salmon-fisheries on the Klamath would result in serious trouble.
      There are no tribal relations, of any kind, of binding force among these Indians; no chief or head-man recognized by the whole. Each village is a separate community of itself, where the wealthiest man is the recognized chief. So far as I could see, the Klamath Indians are pretty well supplied with fire-arms, principally the old muzzleloading squirrel-rifle. They have a great many canoes – I estimate the number at about two hundred – and also some horses, but not a great number.
      I think three or four hundred acres would cover all the level land along the river, which is principally at the site of old Fort Terwer, and just opposite, on Wakel Flats, the site of the old Indian agency. Formerly there was more cultivated land at these p]aces, but the floods of 1862 washed it away. Of the farming-lands on the mountain sides, I should think three or four thousand acres would be a large estimate for, say, one mile on each side of the river from the Trinity to the ocean; but timber is in the greatest abundance and variety, and very fine. From the mouth of the river to Klamath bluffs is a very dense growth of the finest rosewood, and easy of access.

KOOTENAYS.

      The 350 Kootenays living on the Jocko reservation, in Montana, have undertaken very little in the way of farming, and subsist mainly by hunting and fishing. They are willing and able to work for white settlers, but their earnings are squandered in gambling.
      Some three or four hundred of the tribe are roaming in Northern Idaho, and have never come into any treaty relations with the United States.

LAKES.

      Two hundred and forty-two Lakes are in the northern part of Washington Territory, where they are cultivating, with little assistance from the Government, about fifty acres, but have no permanent home.
      Six of their children are in the boarding-school at the Colville agency.

LITTLE LAKE INDIANS.

      These Indians number 160, and have a home in the Round Valley reservation in California with the Potter Valley and Pitt River Indians, under which head they will be referred to hereafter.

LIPANS.

      The Lipans to the number of 26 are near Fort Griffin, Texas, and will be referred to hereafter in connection with the Tonkaways.

LUMMIS.

      They will be mentioned hereafter in connection with the S'Kokomish Indians.

MAKAHS.

      The 560 Makahs on the Neah Bay reservation, in the extreme northwest of Washington Territory, are almost exclusively engaged in the remunerative but hazardous occupation of catching seals, which abound in the Straits of Fuca from February until June. They also find a


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good market for the oil of whales, dog fish and sharks. The seals are captured by spearing, and are chased by the Indians in enormous canoes many miles from land. Several lives are lost yearly by canoes being carried by sudden winds far out at sea, beyond all hope of return.
      For several years past the agents at Neah Bay have urged that a schooner be fitted out for the use and protection of these Indians, and this recommendation was renewed in report of Special Commissioners Lang and Smith, published last year.
      The Makahs subsist almost entirely on salmon and halibut. At present scarcely any tillable lands are found on the reservation; but, according to the estimate made by the above mentioned commissioners, by the expenditures of not more than $1,500 in diking, an area of two thousand acres of rich, arable land could be reclaimed from the tides; and it is believed many Indians could then be induced to undertake agriculture.
      By the consent of their parents, the agent and is wife have taken into their own family twenty-two children, and ass£med the entire care of their board, clothing, education, and training. This first experiment among them, in separating Indian children from Indian life and language, and placing around them the influences of a Christian home, has met with most encouraging success. Half the number, who began the alphabet, now read readily in the Testament and write a legible hand, while their health, neatness, industry, and good behavior they would scarcely be recognized as the wild, filthy, diseased beings of one year ago.

MANDANS.

      They were once a large tribe – located in nine villages, on both sides of the Missouri River – but, reduced to a mere remnant by warfare with the Sioux and by two visitations of the small-pox, they took refuge among the Arickarees, where they have since remained, maintaining through all reverses an independent tribal organization. They now number 420, and live in large dome-shaped houses made of poles and brush plastered with mud. These cold, damp, and unwholesome habitations are gradually being replaced by log-houses built under the directions of the agent.
      Their condition and prospects have already been referred to in connection with the Arickarees.

MARICOPAS.

      They number 300, and being associated with the Pimas, will be referred to under that head.

MENOMONEES.

      The Menomonees are native to Wisconsin. They number 1,522, and are living in a civilized way on their reservation in Shawano County, in that state. No change has been made in their comfortable circumstances, as reported last year, except in the matter of schools. In this respect an attendance of 160 scholars in three day-schools, against 82 scholars in two schools last year, shows an advance in the right direction. A manual-labor boarding-school is their greatest need at present.
      During the past winter the Menomonees cut over five million feet of logs, half of which were sold on the banks of the Oconto, and the other half in Oshkosh, at an average price of nearly $7 per thousand, netting to the Indians, after receiving full wages for their labor, nearly $4 per thousand.


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METHOWS.

      The Methows are a peaceable tribe of Indians residing, on the river of the same name in Washington Territory. They number 315 and make some attempts at farming, but are so far from the headquarters of the Colville agency, to which they belong, that they receive but little encouragement or assistance from the Government.

MIAMIES.

      They are native to Indiana, where a few are now citizens. Most of the tribe removed to Kansas in 1846, and in 22 years were reduced in number from 500 to 92. In 1873 their lands in Kansas were appraised for sale and most of the tribe confederated with the Peorias in the Indian Territory. A few who were nearly white elected to remain in Kansas as citizens. The land matters of those who are consolidated with the Peorias are still in an unsettled state, and this uncertainly as to their affairs operates unfavorably in regard to their advance in civilization. However, their agent reports:

      The Miamies who have removed to this reservation are, notwithstanding their many discouragements, doing well. They have been in a very poor condition consequent on their first starting in a new country, and the total failure of their crops last season. Since their removal here they have taken active steps in organizing a church. Commencing with twelve members less than two years ago, they now have seventy-seven among the Miamies and Peorias. The effects of this movement can be plainly seen in the decreased number of drunken brawls, and in the general improvement of the conduct and morals of both tribes.

      A school-house has just been completed for their use.

MISSION INDIANS.

      These tribes have alredy been referred to at length on pages 9 to 12 of this report.

MISSOURIAS.

      They are confederated with the Otoes, and will be spoken of in connection with that tribe.

MODOCS.

      The portion of this tribe who took no part in the Modoc war are Yainax station on the Klamath reservation in Oregon, under the chieftainship of Schonschin, brother of the chief of that name who was executed with Captain Jack. They number 103, are remarkably temperate, and are disposed to labor. Their relatives in the Indian Territory strongly urge their removal thither, but in reply they only reiterate their determination to live and die in their own country.
      Those who were removed in 1873 to the Quapaw reservation, in the Indian Territory, have made a good record in the year just closed. Their agent reports:

      They have engaged in manual labor with more readiness and perseverance than I had any anticipation of. They have during the year past made and put in fence 17,200 rails, built 12 houses, and planted 50 acres of corn and vegetables. The average number of men in the tribe able to work has been about 20. Bogus Charlie, the principal chief, had already saved a sufficient sum of money and bought him a cow and a calf. For the last two months there has been a great deal of sickness among them, and in several instances it has proved fatal.

      A careful perusal of the accompanying report of their agent with that of 1874 will satisfy any mind of the truth of what I have so often


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insisted upon in this report, that Indians need only opportunity offered by suitable lands, adequate assistance, and a proper agent, to come at once into civilization. If one-tenth of the interest of the money spent in fighting these Modocs in 1873 could have been annually expended on such basis for their civilization, the principal of that large expenditure would be now in the Treasury of the United States and many lives would have been saved to the country.

MOHAWKS.

      The descendants of this tribe are now known as the Saint Regis Indians, and will be spoken of hereafter under that name.

MOJAVES.

      The Mojaves are divided into two bands with rival chiefs. Several years ago, those under Iretaba, now numbering 820, removed from the vicinity of Fort Mojave, on the Colorado River, in Arizona, to the Colorado River reservation, one hundred miles lower down, and from obtaining a precarious living by the cultivation of small patches, dependent on the uncertain overflow of the river, they passed to an idle dependence on the Government for rations, which, with whisky and vices learned of white men, completed their utter demoralization and degradation. Three years ago these Indians, not without much opposition, were required to pay for all rations in labor, most of which was expended in extending an irrigating-canal, which had been commenced several years previous, and on which depended their only chance for becoming self-supporting. Respecting this canal the agent reports as follows:

      I have the honor and the extreme satisfaction to inform you of the completion of the irrigating-canal and its successful opening, June 24, by Hokorow, chief of the Mojaves. We have 9 feet depth of water now at the head-gate, but admit only 4 feet, leaving 2 feet clear between the water and the top timbers to prevent injury to the tunnels and to enable us to visit them at all times. The water is now flowing through the tunnels and canal, a distance of nine miles, reaching the surface the last five, beginning a quarter of a mile below the agency building, and from that on, irrigating more land than we can now cultivate or shall require with the small number of Indians now here. They are greatly pleased with the result of their labors, which they feared were in vain, but being now supplied with tools and seeds, have gone to work with a will and vigor they have not heretofore displayed The Indians have been greatly interested in its completion, and their chief and captains have been working with a shovel most industriously upon it. This is a great innovation upon established customs, labor by the captains being considered most degrading. I esteem this quite a victory, though three years were required to accomplish it. They now look forward to large crops from the success of the ditch.
      The Mojave Indians have learned to labor so well by their work on the irrigating-canal that I have repeated applications for their services to work in the mines and on the roads; but I have disapproved of their leaving the limits of the reservation.
      The overflow has been less this year than any of the three preceding, and would not have served to raise even their few melons; but they now see abundance ahead, and will require no rations, except beef, after this crop is gathered. We propose to improve and extend the canal next winter, and to pay the Indians for their labor in flour.

      By this canal 50,000 acres can now be made to produce two crops a year, upon which all the river tribes and the Pimas and Maricopas, who should be induced, if possible, to remove thither, may soon be made independent farmers. Indeed, this reserve and the San Carlos offer sufficient suitable country for all the Indians of Arizona, with abundant opportunity for self-support.
      The corn, beans, and melons raised by these Mojaves this season have enabled the agent to lessen his issues of subsistence, so that flour purchased on last year's contract will last until their wheat harvest in Feb-


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ruary next. He also proposes to decrease the beef ration and to turn over to Indians, as stock, the balance of the cattle contracted for. For the future it is believed that the only need of these Indians will be the continued instruction by employés and the maintenance of schools. Little has been accomplished in day schools hitherto, except to demonstrate that the Mojave children are unusually intelligent and will make apt scholars, and that little permanent good can be accomplished except by placing them in a boarding-school.
      The agent believes that the other portion of this tribe still at Fort Mojave, numbering seven hundred, who often visit the reservation, will see the advantage it offers, and gradually settle thereon without any compulsion other than the encroachments of settlers on their present camping-grounds.

MUCKLESHOOTS.

      Of these 500 belong to the Tulalip agency (and will be spoken of hereafter in connection with the Snohomish Indians) and 100 to the Puyallup agency. No teachers or employés are stationed on the Muckleshoot reservation near Puget Sound, and consequently nothing in the way of civilization is being attempted there by the Government. The Indians, however, are quite extensively employed by white settlers, and cultivate a few acres on their own account, and, with fish and game for their main resource, secure a comfortable livelihood. Several are living in houses of their own construction. It is recommended that this reservation be abandoned, aud that the Indians be removed to the Lummi reserve.

MUNSEES.

      These Indians have nearly passed out of existence as a tribe. About half a dozen, the remnant of those located with the Stockbridges many years ago in Wisconsin, have during the year received their share of tribal funds and become citizens; a few confederated with Chippewas of Swan Creek and Black River, in Kansas have for several years been thrifty, worthy citizens of that State.

NAVAJOES.

      An attempt has been made during the year to introduce weaving upon hand-looms among Navajo women, who have long manufactured blankets and cloth with the most primitive tools, the wool being obtained from their own flocks. Four looms were put into operation, and the women proved themselves both apt and enthusiastic pupils. As reported last year, all the Navajoes are more or less engaged in agriculture and herding. They own large flocks of sheep and goats, but are dependent upon the Government for two-thirds of their subsistence, and are sadly in need of educational facilities, only 30 out of nearly 10,000 being in school.
      Vigorous efforts should immediately be put forth and adequate means provided to bring these Navajoes at once into a condition of self-support. It is believed that if the expenditure of a single year could be doubled and properly applied under the administration of an efficient, clear-headed agent in supplying seeds, tools, stock-cattle, and additional herds of sheep and goats, and furnishing rations to the Indians only when earned by their own labor, the large expenditure necessary to support the Indians on the present unsatistactory plan could thereafter be materially reduced, and within a short time might cease altogether.
      The relations of the military to this agency are fully set forth in the report of the agent for this year and years previous. The accounts of


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the lewdness among Indian women practised by the soldiers stationed at Fort Wingate with the knowledge of their officers, furnish a record of burning shame to the whole American people.

NESPEELUMS AND SAN POELS.

      They are confederated tribes, numbering 500, who reside in the northern part of Washington Territory, and belong to the Colville agency, but have made no treaty with the Government, and refuse to acknowledge its authority even by accepting presents or favor. They will be spoken of hereafter in connection with the San Poels.

NEZ PERCÉS.

      Of the 2,800 Nez Percés, nearly half, located on the Kamiah and Lapwai reservations in Northern Idaho and a few others settled on lands outside the reserve, are prosperous farmers and stock-growers. The rest are "non-treaties," who, with other non-treaty Indians in that region, make every exertion to induce the reservation Indians to leave their farms and join them in annual hunting and root-gathering expeditions. The settlements made in the Wallowa Valley, which has for years been the pasture-ground of the large herds of horses owned by Joseph's band of the "non-treaties," will occasion more or less trouble between this band and the whites until Joseph is induced or compelled to settle upon his reservation.
      The prosperous condition of those of the Nez Perces who are upon the reserve was fully set forth in my last report. That no special advancement has been made during the year is largely due to the distraction caused by the attempt of Langford to take forcible possession of the section of land embracing the sites of most of the agency buildings, claimed by him under purchase. The nature of this claim was fully set forth in my last report. Under the decision of the Attorney-General that Langford's title to these lands was not valid, military aid was procured, by which he was ejected from the reservation and the buildings and lands again turned over to the charge of the agent to be put to their intended use[.]

NISQUALLIES.

      The 150 Nisquallies on the Nisqually reserve, near Puget Sound, are in muuch the same condition as the Muckleshoots.

OKANAGANS.

      They number 330, and are on the Colville reservation, in Washington Territory. A few have made a feeble attempt at farming, but the land is poor, and their chief dependence must be on fishing, hunting, and root-gathering. No genuine effort has ever been made to raise them out of barbarism.

OMAHAS.

      The 1,005 Omahas near the Missouri River, in Eastern Nebraska, are in the same thrifty, prosperous condition as reported last year. They have given up the hunt and are settled upon allotments of land, on the cultivation of which, without any compensation from the Government, they depend for their entire subsistence.
      Last year they sold 10,000 bushels of corn and several hundred bushels of wheat, potatoes, and beans. This year the crop, though


[Page 73]

injured by excessive rains, will average 25 bushels corn and 3½ bushels wheat to each individual of the tribe.
      The Omahas take an exceptional interest in the education of their children, and for the last five years one-seventh of the whole population has been in attendance at three excellent schools. For some reason, in the adoption of citizens' dress and in living in houses this tribe are unusually backward. In respect to the latter, however, they are making improvement, having themselves built thirteen houses during the year. Order on the reservation is maintained by an efficient Indian police-force. The number of births during the year has exceeded the deaths by 51.

ONEIDAS.

      They are native te New York, but the main body of the tribe, numbering 1,332, are on a reservation near Green Bay, Wis. A large proportion speak English, have learned to take care of themselves, and are ready for qualified citizenship, having reached the point where, as Indians, they will make no further progress in civilization. Looking to this end, a survey of their lands, with a view to allotment in severalty, is now in progress. Such allotment will tend in a measure to break up the evil practice referred to in my last report, of the sale by individuals of timber belonging to the tribe, by which unprincipled buyers are benefited and the Indians defrauded. The timber is bargained by the Indians at half price, is fraudulently scaled, and is often paid for in goods at exorbitant prices, which in turn are frequently exchanged for whisky.
      In education the tribe is sadly deficient. Out of 400 children of school-going age, the agent reports an average attendance of only 60, with but little interest in education on the part of either parents or children.
      That portion of the tribe which is still in New York, and has been allowed to remain undisturbed in their original home, on suitable lands set apart for their occupancy, and upon whom not only the law of labor has been brought to bear in the necessity of tilling the soil, but also the example of thrifty white farmers in their vicinity, and for whom common schools have been provided by the State, on the ground both of duty to those within her borders and also ultimate economy in the administration of her affairs, are considerably in advance of those in Wisconsin in order, industry, intelligence, wealth, and general morality. They furnish another illustration of the principle that the best method of civilization with an Indian is not to remove him perpetually out on the border, but to let him remain and be surrounded with thrift and intelligence, and be brought under the operation of State law. They number 251, and have 51 children between the ages of 5 and 21. Of these 44 have been enrolled during the year in the two day-schools, but the teachers, probably on account of inadequate salaries, have failed to awaken the interest of either pupils or parents, and in consequence the average attendance is reported to be only eight.

ONONDAGAS.

      Like the Oneidas the Onondagas have justified the kind and humane treatment received from the State of New York by steady progress in civilization, until they have become ready for membership in its body politic. The perseverance and pride of this people in improving their farms, orchards, and stock is stimulated by an annual agricultural fair,


[Page 74]

conducted after the manner of white communities, and productive of the same good results. Every child between the ages of 5 and 21 has attended school during some part of the past year. One of the two day schools is supported by the State; the other is under the patronage of the Episcopal Church. Their population is 450 and is steadily oil the increase.

OSAGES.

      The Osages in the northern part of the Indian Territory, between the Arkansas River and the 96th meridian, number 3,001; of these 323 are mixed-bloods, who are self-supporting and may be considered civilized. Great changes have been wrought among the full-bloods during the last two years in the direction of abandoning the wigwam and blanket and the chase. Owing to the failure of their first crop, one year ago, they were entirely subsisted during the winter on supplies, purchased by Government with their large annuity, but issued only in return for labor. The crops raised by both full-bloods and half-breeds this season are 5,600 bushels corn, and 19,200 bushels wheat, and 9,500 bushels vegetables, which, if evenly distributed, would be sufficient to supply the whole tribe with bread for a year. The remarkable progress of the Osages, especially the full-bloods, in the last three years is best stated by the following table, taken from agent Gibson's report, to which attention is invited for other interesting information in regard to this tribe:

  Mixed-bloods. Full-bloods.
  1873. 1874. 1875. 1873. 1874. 1875.
Number of families 65 70 70 450 464 468
Number of recorded claims 53 68 70 131 256 310
Number of families living in houses 53 59 64 23 50 150
Number of families who have orchards 12 32 64 ..... 42 113
Number of families who have wells 21 31 47 ..... 61 121
Acres of land in cultivation 1,258 1,637 2,037 563 993 1,839
Acres of land broken ..... ..... 500 ..... ..... 2,500
Number of rails in fence 238,384 351,792 462,772 84,658 382,033 785,898
Whole number of fruit-trees set out ..... ..... 5,000 ..... ..... 15,000

      Most of the 150 families who have not recorded claims have fenced fields and have raised good crops, but have been influenced by evil-designing men outside the reservation to disregard survey-lines, and in other ways to resist the agent in his efforts to induce the adoption of civilized methods of living.
      The two schools have an attendance of 104 pupils, about the same number as last year. The Osages have, as a tribe, been fast friends of the Government, but they have been somewhat restless and difficult to control during the year, owing to unwarrantable interference by outside parties, and to causes for grievance which were fully set-forth last year and which are still unsettled.
      Attention is invited to the statement of the agent respecting the intrigues and bribery practiced upon the chiefs and headmen to induce them to urge the payment out of their tribal funds of $180,000, in addition to the $50,000 already paid in satisfaction of a claim for attorneys fees. The recommendations of the agent for such decisive action as shall at once quiet all expectations of the claimants are eminently practical.


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OTOES.

      The two years' experiment of compelling the confederated Ottoes and Missourias to receive their cash annuity only in return for labor, has proved a decided success. Notwithstanding the discouragement of the entire failure of their first season's crops which necessitated a hunt during the winter to prevent hunger, they began work in the spring with renewed energy and have performed the labor required on an agency farm of 383 acres in addition to the cultivation of 300 acres in small home fields by individual Indians.
      Were it not for serious damage to wheat and oats caused by grasshoppers and drought followed by excessive rain, the crops realized would have nearly sufficed to subsist the whole tribe of 457 persons.
      Notwithstanding these damages, their first crop consists of 500 bushels wheat, 10,000 bushels corn, 11,000 bushels potatoes and turnips, and 100 bushels beans, of which the Indians are justly proud.
      A day-school, with 68 scholars, has been in operation during ten months of the year; and an industrial-school building, which has been erected during the year, will soon be opened for pupils. It is very desirable, as stated last year, that the west half of their reservation, lying in southern Nebraska, be sold, and the proceeds be invested as a trust-fund to insure the permanent support of the industrial school, and to provide stock and agricultural implements for the tribe. Such sale will save to the Ottoes many thousand dollars now lost annually in timber stolen from their reservation by their white thieving neighbors.
      Other items of interest are thus given by Agent Griest:

      I have procured a herd of three hundred and eight head of cattle, to be kept as agency property in the interests of the tribe, as a nucleus of supply for their future wants in the way of beef, and to furnish families with cows as they becorne so situated as to take proper care of them.
      One Indian who broke a piece of prairie last year, raised 75 to 100 bushels of wheat on it this summer, which is the first wheat-raising by individual Indians since my connection with the tribe, and will, I think, induce others to imitate his example next year.
      The pay-rolls of the past year show 132 names of Indians that have labored, while the census recently taken shows 134 male Indians in the tribe over 20 years of age.
      Of the land broken this season, about 80 acres was by Indians, done without compensation other than that afforded by the prospect of opening a farm. The time has probably arrived when allotments of land should be made to those who are willing to take them, as is provided in the treaty of 1854. The preliminaries of a survey are already completed.

OTTAWAS.

      Most of this tribe are consolidated with the Chippewas of the Superior in Michigan, their native State, and have already been treated of. A portion of the Ottawas, now numbering 140, are located on the Quapaw reservation in the Indian Territory. They have 43 children in school.
      Their agent says:

      The Ottawas have been energetically engaged during the season in putting in and caring for their crops. The general condition of the tribe is good. The majority of them attend church, Sabbath-school, and temperance meetings regularly. The public sentiment of the tribe is decidedly in favor of temperance, and as a result drunkenness has greatly decreased among them. A few of the dissolute young men of the tribe have long been suspected of horse-stealing, and the tribal regulations proving to be insufficient to restrain them, in accordance with the wishes of the chief and leading men, I had two of them arrested by the United States marshal, and taken to Fort Smith, Ark., where they are now in jail awaiting trial, with almost a certainty of conviction. This appears to have had a salutary effect on others, as no complaints of similar offenses have been made since. There have been two deaths and nine births during the past year.


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PAH-UTES.

      They are properly called Paviotsoes, their own Indian name for the tribe, and, though often confounded with the Pi-Utes, are a distinct people, speaking another language. They are reported to number not far from 2,000, of whom a small number are cultivating lands upon the Walker River and Pyramid Lake reservations in Nevada, Trout caught in their streams in considerable quantities affords them a currency for barter, with which they are able to add materially to their means of obtaining a comfortable livelihood.
      The remainder of the Pah-Utes are roaming through Western Nevada and Northeastern California, cultivating patches of ground here and there, or laboring for farmers and miners, or living by begging, root-digging, and fishing.

PAH-VANTS.

      The Pah-Vants are intermarried with the Uintah Utes, and speak the same language, and were reported, in 1873, to be living in Utah, and to number 134, under one chief, who, though himself living in a house, and having partially adopted civilized habits, had failed to raise his people beyond hunting, begging, and gathering seeds for support.

PI-UTES.

      By report of Messrs. Ingalls and Powell, submitted in 1873, after careful and personal investigation, the number of this tribe is placed at 2,027, exclusive of those in Oregon, being distributed as follows: 528 in Utah, 284 in Northern Arizona, 1,031 in Southern Nevada, and 184 in Southeast California. They are divided into 31 bands, and several years ago were extensively engaged in cultivating the soil, but by the gradual approach of settlements have been pushed off from their best farming-land, and forced to a vagabond life and a precarious subsistence mainly on roots and berries and seeds, supplemented by tilling the soil to a limited extent, and by working occasionally for settlers. They are becoming quite familiar with the English laanguage, but in other respects are growing more demoralized each year by contact with the worst feature of civilization. A reservation of 3,900 square miles was set apart for their use by Executive order in 1873, of which less than 1 per cent was valuable for either tillage, timber, or grazing. This large reserve has recently been reduced to one thousand acres of fine farming-land in the upper part of the Moapa Valley, the abandoned site of an old Mormon settlement, whose irrigation ditches require but little repair to make them of great value in the effort to bring the Pi-Utes to self-support by agriculture. Only 400 have as yet been gathered on the reserve. Their readiness to adapt themselves to the new mode of life is most encouraging for their future.
      Within the last two years 570 Pi-Utes, with 173 Bannacks and Snakes, vagrants of Southwestern Oregon, have been gathered on the Malheur reservation in that State, where they are being subsisted by the Government. Notwithstanding their previous roaming and lawless habits, the agent reports that they are not only peaceably disposed and easily controlled, but also that they have been induced to earn all their annuity-goods and a small portion of their rations by labor. One hundred young men have taken bold of the hoe and spade for the first time, and by the cultivation of one hundred acres and the digging of an irrigation-ditch 10 feet wide, 3 feet deep, and a mile and a half long, have fairly committed themselves to self-support.


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PAPAGOES.

      Their condition with reference to an undisturbed occupation of their lands has been rendered more secure by the Executive order of July 1, 1874, withdrawing from sale 70,000 acres of public land around the old San Xavier Mission. Inspector Daniels reports their condition as follows:

      From the best information that can be had there are about 7,000 Papago Indians, but of these there are only about 900 on the reservation lately set off for them. They are not fed, but receive assistance in farming-implements. These Indians are a peaceable, well-disposed people, good farmers, and willing to support themselves as they have done, but would be very grateful if they could have a grist-mill and a few carts.
      The reservation comprises 70,400 acres of land, which is ample for all of this tribe of Indians for both farming and grazing. It has all the advantages of water for irrigating purposes, and some of the most productive land in the Territory.
      Those on the reservation live in "hacals," have a few acres of land under cultivation, which in all amounts to 960 acres; and from observation they appear well supplied with provisions. In a council I held with them on the twentieth, they expressed themselves satisfied with their agent, as they saw that he was doing everthing to assist them and make them better able to support themselves.
      They are well-dressed and do not appear to want for anything to make them comfortable. To be sure they live in "hacals," but when the agent builds a house for himself at San Xavier they intend to put up adobe houses and live in them. So soon as the Mexicans on the reservation are removed, those Indians away on the Gila and in the Dry Papago Country will join them at San Xavier.
      Those in the Dry Country get a precarious living by hunting and planting in the "temporals," where they depend upon rain for moisture. With them there has been no improvement, while those who have been brought under the immediate control of the agent have enlarged their fields, put on the dress of the whites, and keep away from the town, unless they have business here, or are employed to work. You see no drunken Indians about now, but a few years ago the town was full of them. The prospects of these people are certainly very encouraging.
      They require a little assistance, and I would recommend that they be provided with a grist-mill for a water-power that may be had on their reservation, and a few carts and work-cattle. At the present time, if they take their grain to the mill to be ground, it requires one-half of it to pay for grinding. The carts they are unable to buy, and as they progress in civilization and cultivate more land, they are indispensable vehicles.
      The school is doing well and, for the time they have received instruction, the 110 scholars have made marked improvement.

PAWNEES.

      The settlement of the Pawnees, many years ago, upon lands in Central Nebraska claimed by the Sioux, gave rise to bitter hostilities on the part of the Sioux, and a subsequent cession of the lands did not cure the feud between the two tribes, which had become hereditary. Owing to constant exposure to raids from their powerful foes, seriously retarding their progress in civilization, the removal of the Pawnees from their fertile reservation to the Indian Territory has for a long time been under consideration. In the winter of 1873 a band of 360 "removed" thither on their own account and took up their abode among the Wichitas; and last year the prospect of a winter of destitution and suffering consequent on the entire destruction of their crop by grasshoppers induced the remaining 1,840 to follow their example and to ask the Government that their lands in Nebraska be sold and the proceeds applied to the purchase of a new reservation in the Indian Territory for their future home. Accordingly the agent, with a delegation of chiefs and head-men, proceeded thither in the fall of 1874 to select a suitable location for the new reservation, and after careful survey, decided on a tract of good farming, grazing, and timber lands, including a fine water-power, lying between the forks of the Arkansas and Cimarron Rivers and east of the


[Page 78]

97th meridian. The remaining Pawnees, with the exception of between 400 and 500 who were mostly old or infirm people or children, went south soon afterward under the charge of employés, and were ready for vigorous work early in the spring. The results of their seven months' labor are reported by Mr. B. Rush Roberts, of the Board of Indian Commissioners, as follows:

      Our hearts were made to rejoice at the thrift and industry which we witnessed, as well as the care which had been taken to keep everything neat and clean, so unlike all Indian village; and at the good judgment displayed in the location of the many agency buildings on the spot intended for and constituting the headquarters of the tribe.
      The Indians arrived too late in the summer on their new reservation to plant any crops for winter use, but we were informed that a majority of the able-bodied men. have been laboring, and nearly all the remainder were desirous to labor, but for want of implements, with insufficient employé force to direct them, it was not practicable to utilize their power and inclination in that direction. There have been twenty new buildings erected on the reservation, consisting of dwellings, shops, offices, &c., and a steam saw-mill, at which all the lumber required for building purposes is cut. Thirty Indians have been employed, with the white mechanics and laborers, on the farm and about the mill and shops, and in making roads and bridges. Many of these employés are hired on the only terms which the agent was authorized to offer, viz, to feed them, and they to rely upon an act of Congress to enable the Indians to realize funds from the sale of their lands in Nebraska, from which these laborers can be paid. The whole tribe is now being fed and clothed on the same terms, relying on the justice of Congress to re-imburse the parties furnishing supplies. Much labor has been performed by Indians in making roads and bridges for many miles across the prairie toward the Osage agency, through which all the supplies have to be wagoned one hundred and five miles at heavy cost. A good substantial ferry-boat has been constructed by which to cross the Arkansas River on this road, and the ferry is used solely for the benetit of the tribe, there being no other travel on the route but that which communicates with the agency. About 200 tons of hay have been cut and put up, and the farmer was still cutting and stacking when we left the agency. There were abundant crops of melons and pumpkins raised and consumed or dried for winter use, during the present fall. There have been about 300 acres of land broken and 125 acres seeded in wheat. Two ox-teams, of three yokes each, are employed most of the time in hauling logs to the saw-mill. In cutting and sawing ihe logs Indians are found to be efficient helpers, as well as in farm-labor. Agent Burgess has, under proper authority, purchased 12 wagons and 23 head of horses to enable him to remove the majority of the tribe from Nebraska, and these teams will add very much to the efficient working of the agency in the erection of the agent's house and industrial-school building which it is proposed to commence at once, and to use the material which is abundant on the reservation for the purpose, namely, stone, lime, sand, lumber, and shingles; the hardware and glass constituting nearly all the material which will have to be purchased.

      In the mean time those left on the Nebraska reservation have not been idle, and their crops, consisting of 5,500 bushels of wheat, 5,600 bushels of corn, 3,600 bushels of oats, and 1,800 bushels of vegetables, are the fruits of Indian labor under direction of the agency farmer. The three schools have been attended by 140 pupils, whose docility and steady improvement are most encouraging. This portion of the tribe are now en route to the Indian Territory. A few weeks before taking up their march, after the withdrawal of the military force which for several months had been their protection against incursions of hostile Sioux, two raids were made upon them, in which two Pawnees were murdered. The agent is in doubt whether the raiders were Indians or white horsethieves in Indian disguise.
      The Pawnees who have lived among the Wichitas for the last two years were permitted to remain and gather their large crops of corn and vegetables, before joining their brethren on the new reservation.

PEND D'OREILLES.

      The Upper Pend d'Oreilles, numbering 850, are located on the Jocko reservation, in Montana, their country by original occupation as well as


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by treaty. A small portion of the tribe, with their chief, cultivate a small farm, and are earnestly endeavoring to become self-sustaining by agriculture; but the main body of the tribe follow the chase, with other non-treaty Indians, in the Rocky Mountains.
      The Washington Territory Pend d'Oreilles, sometimes called Callispels, number 395, and are still in their original homes on the Pend d'Oreille River and around Lake Callispel, where they cultivate in potatoes and wheat about 100 acres of land, fenced in small patches. If suitable assistance could be rendered, they would readily become self-supporting by agriculture; but they are now obliged to depend mainly on fishing, hunting, and root-gathering for subsistence.
      These Indians have also been spoken of in connection with the Colvilles.
      Others of this tribe, numbering probably not far froin 300, are roaming with the Coeur d'Alénes in Idaho.

PEORIAS.

      With the Peorias were confederated in 1854 the small tribes of Kaskaskias, Weas, and Piankeshaws, all of whom, native to Illinois, removed to Kansas in 1832, and to their present reservation in the Indian Territory in 1860. They number in the aggregate 162, and are in a condition of agricultural prosperity which will compare favorably with that of white men.Their sehool has an enrollment of 36 pupils, and an average daily attendance of 30. In other respects their agent reports:

      Their moral condition is improving, drunkeness is decreasing, and their interest in the education of their children is growing. Quite a number of the tribe, including their head chief, have united with the church, and are endeavoring to lead sober, Christian lives.

      At the time of the removal of the Peorias from Kansas, 55, who are not included in the above enumeration, elected to remain in that State as citizens.

PIMAS AND MARICOPAS.

      Little change has occurred during the year in the condition of these 4,300 Indians in Arizona Territory. When there is an abundant rain fall, the crops raised on reservation lands along the Gila River are sufficient for their subsistence. This has been the case for the past two years, and, in consequence, a proposition to remove to some point where agriculture can be carried on with reasonable certainty of a yearly crop meets just now with no favor. Such removal, however, is more desirable than ever before, owing to the recent discovery of valuable minerals in that section, and to the fact that a good home is now ready for them on the Colorado River reservation. Prostitution and intemperance prevail among these tribes to an alarming extent.

PONCAS.

      The Poncas are in the same condition as reported last year – peaceable, agriculturally disposed, and provided with good lands and plenty of farming-implements, and not utterly averse or unaccustomed to work, but in such constant exposure to raids from hostile Sioux that when working more than a quarter of a mile from the agency they are obliged to carry hoe in one hand and gun in the other. A force of fifteen soldiers is stationed at the agency for their protection. The two hundred acres cultivated on the agency farm, mostly by Indian labor, and the two hundred and twenty-five acres in gardens and fields belonging


[Page 80]

to individual Indians, have yielded good crops, which will remove the discouragement caused last year by the grasshopper raid. Out of the seven bundred and thirty-four Indians, eighty have attended school irregularly. Nothing but safety of life stands in the way of these Indians settling down on allotments and becoming self-surporting in a few years.
      The hostility of the Sioux arises from the fact that the Poncas are settled on their lands, being claimed by them originally and confirmed to them as a part of their permanent reserve in Dakota. There are three reasons why the Poncas should join the Omahas: (1) They are related and speak the same language; (2) the Omahas have good lands to spare and are willing to receive them; (3) they cannot improve while subjected to their constant fear of the Sioux; (4) the country where they now are would make a suitable location to which the Red Cloud Sioux could be removed. It is hoped that provision may be made by the next Congress for such removal.

POTTAWATOMIES.

      More than two-thirds of this tribe, about one thousand four hundred, became citizens in 1861. A portion of the others fled to Mexico, from whence they have raided into Texas, carrying back their booty to trade with the Mexicans. An attempt to induce them to return to the United States and settle as Indians again on lands in the Indian Territory has thus far proved unsuccessful. A few citizen Pottawatomies, after making trial of citizenship in Kansas, asked to be allowed to buy lands in the Indian Territory, and by special legislation of Congress their request was granted. After having received and squandered their share of bountiful tribal funds, they take refuge from white competition and taxes alongside their Sac and Fox brethren. By direction of the Secretary of the Interior $2,500 of the Pottawatoinie educational fund has been set apart for their school, and a school-house is now in course of erection.
      The Prairie band, which, in 1861, decided to continue to hold in common a limited portion of their lands in Kansas, now number about six hundred and seventy-five, of whom one hundred and seventy-five are voluntarily absent, roaming in Wisconsin, and receive no benefit from the tribal funds.
      The prosperous condition of those in Kansas is thus reported by their agent:

      During their planting-season their corn in some fields was destroyed two and three times. The Indians, however, continued to replant until the grasshoppers left, and now have their reward in the prospect of a good crop of corn. During the past three months I have issued to these Indians, purchased by their own funds, over thirty wagons, about forty sets of harness, and agricultural implements sufficient, with what they had on hand, to complete a fair supply for the present wants of the tribe.
      Since the Prairie band have been settled within the limits of their present reserve, and the area of territory over which they were previously permitted to roam and make temporary fields has been circumscribed, they have been improving, and in the last few years they have been making rapid strides toward civilization and happiness. Their fields are inclosed with excellent fences, their houses are strong and comfortable, and the majority of them act like persons who, after a toilsome journey, have found a place of rest and comfort. They perform all their labor, and manifest much pride in a successful result.

      Only sixty of the large tribe who formerly roamed over Michigan are now in that State. They wear citizens dress, live in houses, and obtain about half their subsistence by the cultivation of one hundred acres of the quarter section which they hold in common in Calhoun County.


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