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Smith to Secretary of the Interior, 1 November 1874, in United States, House, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 43rd Cong., H. Ex. Doc. 1, Part 5, Serial 1639, 76-83, NADP Document R874001F.
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      MALHEUR AGENCY. – The Malheur reservation, on the North Fork of the Malheur River, containing 2,275 square miles, was set apart by executive order, March 14 1871, as a common home for the straggling bands of Shoshones, Bannacks, and Pi-Utes, estimated to number about 1,000, in Southwestern Oregon. Game and salmon abound. Portions of it are suited to agriculture, and an agency-farm of 55 acres has been opened, and some agency-buildings erected. A few Indian families have cultivated small patches of land, but the body of these Indians during the summer have been absent engaged in hunting and fishing.
      UMATILLA AGENCY. – The Walla-Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla Indians, numbering 837, are living on a reservation of 268,000 acres in the northeastern part of the State. The past year about 1,500 acres have been under cultivation, and, with one-half the crop destroyed by crickets, 3,000 bushels of wheat and 2,000 bushels of oats have been gathered. During the summer the Indians wander away from the reservation to hunt, and gather roots and berries in the mountains, taking their children from school and neglecting their cultivated fields.
      Their lands have been surveyed preparatory to allotment. About one-half of these people wear citizens' dress; they own 8,000 horses and 2,000 cattle.
      WARM SPRING AGENCY. – The Wasco, Warm Springs, and Tinino Indians, numbering 680, are on a reservation of 464,000 acres, in the northern part of the State. Of this more than one-half is mountainous and covered with timber, mostly pine. The remainder contains but a limited portion of tillable land, yet sufficient to supply the needs of the Indians, and, as an additional inducement to individual inprovement should be allotted in severalty. Nearly all wear citizens' dress. Two schools have been successfully sustained. Eight hundred acres have been under cultivation, and, although crickets and drought have reduced the, yield to one-third of a crop, 5,000 bushels of wheat, 1,000 bushels of potatoes, and smaller quantities of vegetables have been raised.

WASHINGTON TERRITORY.

      YAKAMA AGENCY. – The Yakamas, 3,500 in number, are located on a reservation of 800,000 acres in the southern part of Washington Territory. About half of the tribe wear citizens' dress, and are engaged in agriculture. During the past year they have had 3,000 acres under cultivation, and have raised 16,000 bushels wheat, 3,000 bushels oats, and 2,000 bushels potatoes, and although the crops were injured by crickets and drought they will be more than sufficient to subsist them comfortably. They own 13,000 horses and 12,000 head of cattle, and catch large quantities of salmon both for subsistence and sale. Over 400,000 feet of logs have been cut, hauled, and sawed by the Indians under the direction of three white employés; and in building fence, hauling hay, lumber, and wood, and building bridges, &c., they have labored industriously. From their earnings, five have purchased wagons. Two schools are in successful operation. Apprentices under the miller, blacksmith, carpenter, and harness-maker are fast becoming competent workmen. The greatest drawback here seems to be the strife between religious societies.
      Learning that two members of the board of Indian commissioners were about to visit the Pacific coast in connection with the purchase of goods for the Department, I made request of the commissioners that they would examine, as far as practicable, any agencies coming within the reach of their journey, and offer suggestions and recommendations


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upon any subject relating to the administration of Indian affairs in Washington Territory and Oregon. In response to such request I am happy to lay before the honorable Secretary the following correspondence:

BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS,
Washington, D.C., December 1, 1874.

      SIR: By direction of the board of Indian Commissioners I have the honor to inclose, for your information and such action as you may deem advisable relative thereto, a copy of the special report of Commissioners Lang and Smith, of this board, of a recent visit by them to the Indian reservations in Washington Territory west of the Cascade Mountains, and to state that the recommendations contained in the report received the approval of the board.
      Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. H SMITH,
Secretary.

Hon. E. P. SMITH,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

WASHINGTON, D. C., November 20, 1874.

      The undersigned members of the board of commissioners submit the following special report of a visit made by them during the month of October ultimo to the various Indian. reservations in Washington Territory west of the Cascade Mountains.
      While in Portland, Oregon, in connection with the purchase of goods for the Indian service, a communication was received from the Indian Department, at Washington, requesting a report as to whether it was advisable to allot lands in severalty to the Indians a pon reservations in that Territory.
      It became known to us from many sources of information that the question of consolidating the Indians upon a smaller number of reservations had long been under consideration; and it appeared essential that a determination of this question should first be made, in order to render any such allotment of lands to individual Indians permanent in its character, and to allay the fears, prevailing among all the Indians in this locality, that if houses were built, lands cultivated, and homes established by them, a new change of policy might require their removal to other localities, and the reward of their labor be reaped by other parties.
      The commissioners considered the question one of sufficient magnitude to justify them in requesting the co-operation and advice of the United States Indian inspector assigned to that district, General Vandever, and of the general commanding the military department of the Columbia, General O.O. Howard, and took the liberty of formally inviting these gentlemen to co-operate with them in the investigation to be made. All the reservations referred to were visited by members of the commission, and the joint visitation by all the parties named was extended sufficiently to enable each to form an intelligent judgment in respect to the conclusion reached.
      The Indians under the care of the Government in the section of Washington Territory named are located upon twelve reservations, ten of which are within the vicinity of Puget Sound and two upon the Pacific coast. Those upon the Puyallup, Nisqually, Chehalis, and Squaxin reservations are under the care of Agent Gibson, whose headquarters are in the city of Olympia. The Tulalip, Port Madison, Swinomish, and Lummi reservations are assigned to Agent Chirouse.
      The S'Kokomish reservation, in charge of Agent Eells, is located at the head of Hood's Canal, on Puget Sound. The Neah Bay reservation, in charge of Agent Huntington, is located at the junction of the Straits of Fuca and the Pacific Ocean, and the Quinaielt reservation, in charge of Agent Henry, upon the Pacific coast, about sixty miles south of Neah Bay.

PUYALLUP, ETC., AGENCY.

      One member of the commission, F. H. Smith, inspected personally the reservation belonging to the first agency named, except the Chehalis, in the ninth of April last, and the report made by him to the Indian Department, setting forth the condition of the Indians upon the Puyallup, Nisqually, Squaxin, and Muckleshoot reservations is appended to this report, and referred to for a statement of the facts relative thereto.
      The Chehalis reservation was visited by General Vandever, who reports the Indians discouraged in consequence of want of care and assistance in their agricultural pursuits, and the reports continually reaching them of the probability of their ultimate removal from the reservation.
      The commissioners visited the S'Kokomish reservation, and made as full an inspection of the valley of the S'Kokomish River, outside of the reservation, as the time at their disposal would permit. The valley for the most part is heavily timbered with fir and cedar. A sufficient area of rich alluvial soil, however, exists along the river-bottom to supply the number of Indians now upon the reservations named with ample


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room for any cultivation they are likely to engage in. The pursuits of these Indians, as of all those in the vicinity of the sound, having been in the past mainly fishing and logging, and in view of the limited amount of arable land in this portion of the Territory suitable for agricultnral purposes, in the opinion of the commissioners these pursuits are the only ones in which the Indians can profitably engage to any large extent in the future.
      A number of white settlers have located in this valley outside the reservation, and an expense of probably $50,000 would be necessary to satisfy their claims. Their presence in the vicinity of the reservation has not proved favorable to the improvement of the Indians. This valley is not only the best, but, so far as was ascertained, the only practicable location for the consolidation of the Indians named on the upper portions of the sound, not liable to very grave objections.
      It is recommended that the reservation be enlargred to the extent of an average width of three miles on each side of the S'Kokomish River, extending from its mouth at Hood's canal, to two miles above the main forks of the river. The enlarged reservation would then embrace less than two townships of land, but quite sufficient for the purposes of the Indians proposed to be consolidated upon it. It would possess the advantages of furnishing excellent facilities for the pursuits of fishing and logging, and would isolate the Indians from contact with white settlements more perfectly than any other location available in this portion of the Territory. It is proposed to place the consolidated bands in charge of the agent at S'Kokomish, and that the agency now located at Olympia be discontinued.

TULALIP AGENCY.

      The agency headquarters for the various bands of Indans occupying the five reser vations of Tulalip, Lummi, Swinomish, Port Madison, and Muckleshoot, is located on Tulalip Bay, at which point all the Government employés reside, except that a farmer is assigned to Lummi. It has not been practicable for the agent or his employés to give any considerable care or attention to the Indians upon these reservations except those located at Tulalip, the distance to be traveled being such as to require about a mouth for a single visit to the various lands within his jurisdiction.
      The habits of all these bands, as of all the Indians upon the sound, are to spend only a small portion of the year upon any reservation, and, so far as they engage in any industrial pursuits, mainly to occupy themselves in fishing, logging, and in the employment of white settlers upon the sound. It is believed that their best interests would be promoted by placing them upon a single reservation, and thus enable the agent and his employés to afford them the advantage of their personal care and assistance.
      All the treaties now in force with the Indians of Washington Territory west of the Cascade Mountains contain provisions looking to the consolidation at some future period of all the bands in that section upon a single reservation, and for this purpose the right is reserved on the part of the Government in each instance to discontinue the reservations and remove the Indians at the pleasure of the President. The Tulalip reservation was selected by Governor Stevens, who negotiated the treaties, as the probable point Of concentration. An investigation of its condition and resources, however, revealed the fact that it contains substantially no land for cultivation, and that its timber has become already so far exhausted as to render the occupation of logging unprofitable. The Port Madison, Mucklesboot, and Swinomish reservations are each limited in extent, and for many reasons unsuitable for the permanent home of these consolidated bands of Indians.
      The commissioners examined the Lummi reservation, situated upon Bellingham Bay, and found the soil to be excellent for cultivation and easily cleared. The point is as favorable as any upon the sound fop engaging profitably in the occupation of fishing, and, except the S'Kokomish, better than any other in respect to its isolation from white settlements. The country extending north has no improvements by white settlers of any considerable value, and it is recommendod that the reservation be extended five miles to the northward, and from the Lummi or Nootsack River to Prince George's Sound; and that the Indians now located upon the Tulalip, Muckleshoot, Port Madison, and Swinomish reservations be removed and consolidated at this point.

NEAH BAY AND QUINAIELT.

      The Indians upon these reservations, located upon the. Pacific coast, differ in many respects, both in their condition and pursuits, from those on Paget Sound. Neither of their reservations contain any considerable area of land suitable for cultivation, and the Indians engage, so far as they provide for their own support, almost exclusively in the capture of whales, furs, seals, and dog-fish. The bands upon the two reservations speak substantially the same language, and are friendly in their relations. The number actually upon the two reservations does not exceed one thousand, and it is believed that economy on the, part of the Government, as well as the welfare of the Indians themselves , require their consolidation. It is recommended, therefore, that


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the Quinaielt agency and reservation be discontinued, and the Indians now in charge of Agent Henry at Quinaielt be removed to Neah Bay. It is also recommended that the Neah Bay reservation be enlarged by extending the same southward a distance of fifteen miles.
      The superintendent of Indian affairs for Washington Territory and the agent at Neah Bay in several annual reports have recommended the purchase of a schooner for the use of these Indians. It is well known that this portion of the coast during a portion of the year is dangerous to navigation, even by vessels of considerable size, and although the canoes used by the Indians are very large and superior in their construetion, and are managed with a degree of skill scarcely equaled, many of the fishermen who venture out to a distance of thirty or forty miles into the ocean, in pursuit of whales and seals, never return. It is, therefore, recommended that authority be given to the agent to purchase and man a schooner for the use of these consolidated bands, and that an appropriation of $5,000 for that purpose be made.

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS.

      By an expenditure of from $1,000 to $1,500 in building a dike and flood-gate, not more than two hundred yards in length being required, about 2,000 acres of excellent land for grass and cultivation would be reclaimed; and, as no land suitable for these purposes on this reservation is at present available, an allowance for this purpose should be made.
      It is also recommended that the President be vested with the power to dispose of the nine reservations vacated, for the best available price, and on such terms as are, in his judgment, most desirable; and that the proceeds of such sale be invested for the benefit of the Indians. From the best information obtained, it is believed that the sale of these reservations will realize an amount very considerably beyond the cost of removing the Indians, extinguishing the claim of settlers upon the land proposed to be included in the enlarged reservation, and the payment, in accordance with treaty provisions, for improvements made by Indians upon reservations from which they are removed. It is recommended that an amount sufficient to cover the cost of removing the Indians and extinguishing the claims of the settlers be appropriated by Congress, and that the sum realized from the sale of reservations be invested as a permanent fund for the education and agricultural improvement of the Indians. If, however, in the judgment of Congress it is deemed wise to use such portion of the proceeds of the sale as may be necessary to re-imburse the Government for the appropriation suggested, the amount will be ample for that purpose.
      Especial attention is asked to the importance of some more positive provision for the education of these Indians. Many families of adult Indians educated in the reservation boarding-schools were visited. In each instance a marked improvement in the intelligence, manner of living, industry, and everything that pertains to civilization was observed, and no instance of any advanced civilization came to notice, unless preceded by such educational advantages. It is of vital importance, if these Indians are to attain any considerable degree of civilization, that ample provision be made for the education of their children away from the demoralizing influences of their own homes, in which agriculture, mechanics, and various branches of industry should also be taught. The agent should be required to compel the attendance of the children of all parents residing upon his reservation at school, and authority necessary for that purpose should be vested in him.
      A large majority of the Indians occupying the country in question do not now reside upon reservations; very many of them are in employment at the mills and by lumbermen and farmers, and many are industrious and skillful in their avocations. In the judgement of the commissioners, it would be an unwise policy to require or encourage such Indians to come again within the special care or bounty of the Government. On the other hand, the policy is recommended of encouraging able-bodied Indians upon the reservations to go into the employment of citizens outside; and that it be made the duty of the agent to interfere, if necessary, for the protection of any Indians so employed; that there be given authority to any Indian, on renouncing his tribal relations, to acquire a homestead upon the public domain and to enjoy the benefits of at least a restricted citizenship.
      There is no reason why a judicious and efficient enforcement of these provisions should not result within a very brief period of years in the absorption of all the Iudians in this portion of the Territory, in the general mass of community, and in releasing the Government from any further obligation to provide for their care as a separate people. An allotment of land, limited in extent, to each male adult Indian residing upon a reservation, the title to remain inalienable for a period of years, but with a substantial guarantee of permanency by the Government, would prove an essential inducement to cultivate and improve the same.
      A reform seems desirable in the selection of appointees, and their assignments to one


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of the agencies upon the Pacific coast; instances occur in which scarcely a single employé actually discharges the duties of the employment for which he is appointed. Provision is made at all the agencies for the employment of a clerk, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, physician, teachers, interpreter, &c., and while each of these appointees should regard himself as under the direction of the agent, to discharge any duty required outside of the specialty for which he is appointed, the practice of appointing a farmer, for example, who neither cultivates any ground himself, nor iustructs any Indian in agriculture, is not regarded as a proper one. A practice has also grown up at many agencies of selecting a large portion of the employés from the family and immediate relatives of the agent. While the present insufficient compensation of agents continues there is an excuse for resorting to these means to enable them to provide a comfortable support, but, as a rule, the practice is not calculated to secure efficiency of administration, and should be discouraged.
      The following sunmary of recommendations is submitted:
      1st. That the Indians on the Puyallup, Nisqually, Squaxin, and Chehalis reservations be removed to the Skokomish reservation.
      2d. That the Skokomish reservation be enlarged to include the valley of the Skokomish, with an average width of three miles on each side of the river, from Hood's Canal to a line two miles above the main forks of the river.
      3d. That the Indians of Port Madison, Tulalip, Swinomish, and Muckleshoot reservations be removed to the Lummi reservation.
      4th. That the Lummi reservation be extended five miles northward, following the line of the Nootsack or Lummi River for its eastern boundary, and extendiiig westward to Prince George's Sound.
      5th. That the Indians of Quinaielt reservation be removed to Neah Bay reservation.
      6th. That the Neah Bay reservation be enlarged by extending the same southward a distance of fifteen miles.
      7th. That the reservations vacated be disposed of in such manner and on such terms as the President may determine for the highest practicable price, and the proceeds invested for the joint benefit of the Indians on the reservations respectively to which they are removed.
      8th. That allotments of land to each male adult Indian upon any reservation, who shall settle upon and cultivate the same, be made, to remain inalienable for a period of ten years, and a title in fee vested in him at the termination of that period if he shall continue to occupy and cultivate the same.
      9th. That each child, between the ages of six and sixteen years, shall be compelled to attend school; and that a refusal upon the part of the parents or guardians shall suspend all right on their part to participate in the annuities or other benefactions of the Government or tribal funds, and the agent shall be authorized and required to adopt such other proper measures as may be necessary to the enforcement of such attendance.
      10th. That agents encourage the employment of adult Indians by respectable white families off the reservation, and render them all necessary assistance in providing for their proper care and protection during such employment.
      11th. That a schooner be furnished to the agent at Neah Bay, and a competent sailor be employed as captain, to be used for the benefit of such Indians as by their industry and compliance with regulations are entitled to consideration.
      12th. That each employé be required to attend diligently to the specific duties of his calling or trade, and to perform such other reasonable duties as may be required of him. He shall also afford every opportunity to the Indians for their improvement and instruction, especially in the mechanical arts and farming.
      The following estimates of appropriations required is submitted:

For extinguishment of claims of settlers
      on the enlargement of the Skokomish reservation  ....................................$50,000
Lummi reservation  .................................... 10,000
Schooner for Neah Bay Indians  .................................... 5,000
Expense of removal of Indians from nine reservations,
      $5,000 each  .................................... 45,000
110,000

      The commissioners are authorized to state that the recommendations made by them and submitted herewith receive the approval of Maj. Gen. 0.0. Howard. commanding Department of Columbia, of Maj. Gen. John Green, First Cavalry, and of Hon. William Vandever, United States inspector, these officers having participated in the investigations made.
      Respectfully submitted.

J. D. LANG,
F. H. SMITH,
Commissioners.

Hon. C. B. FISK,
Chairman Board Indian Commissioners.


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BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS,
Washington, D. C., November 28, 1874.

      SIR: I have the honor, by direction of the board of commissioners, to transmit for your information and such action as you may deem advisable the inclosed copy of a special report, made by myself to the board of commissioners, on the subject of the removal to the Indian Territory of the remaining portion of the Modoc Indians.
      Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. H. SMITH,
Secretary.

Hon. C. DELANO,
Secretary of the Interior.

BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS,
Washington, D. C., November 21, 1874.

      SIR: While in the Indian Territory, in company with Col. J. W. Smith, special commissioner of the Indian Department, in September last, I visited the portion of the Modoc tribe of Indians now located in that Territory, and found them in camp near the Quapaw agency headquarters. I learned that a portion of the Shawnee reservation, under that agency, had been obtained by purchase for the permanent home of these Modocs. The Shawnees declined to sell except upon condition that possession was not to be given until the first installment of the purchase-money had been paid, which condition not having been complied with, the Modocs were still at the agency. Funds for that purpose had, however, reached the superintendency, and it was expected the Indians would enter upon their new reservation during the succeeding week.
      The report of Special Agent Jones, and of every one about the agency, as to the conduct of these people was very encouraging. No difficulty bad occurred in enforcing the strictest discipline. The agent had, as far as practicable, furnished them employment during the season, and had found them willing and energetic in the discharge of every duty. One instance of friction had occurred in the persistence of some of the members of the band in the practice of gambling, resulting in some instances in the disposition of blankets and of every other article of clothing. The acting chief, Scarfaced Charley, declining to interpose his authority for discontinuing the practice, was deposed, and Bogus Charley appointed. The change proved acceptable to the band, and in its moral effect was excellent.
      Twenty-five of the children had been in constant attendance on the school of A. C. Tuttle, in care of the Friends, twelve or fifteen miles distant, and had made unusual progress in the acquisition of the English language and rudiments of education. Several of the adults remaining at the agency had also learned to read during the summer.
      In a formal talk, for which every member of the band, male and female, assembled on the morning of the 23d of September, the expression of satisfaction in their present location and prospects, and of their determination to go to work immediately on their new reservation and become like white men as rapidly as possible, was hearty and unanimous by the chiefs, and assented to by the entire band.
      On learning of my intended visit to Oregon, and that I might possibly see the remaining, portion of the tribe, great solicitude was expressed for the removal of their Oregon brethren to this Territory, and a large number of individual Indians were desirous immediately to send messages, photographs, and fraternal greeting to their friends in the west.
      It was impossible, in the time at my disposal, to visit the Oregon Modocs, but, at the instance of the Department in Washington, I made inquiries of Agent Dyar and others in respect to their present condition and probable assent to removal, if deemed advisable by the Government. I was informed that no objection would probably be interposed on their part. The number now remaining in charge of Agent Dyar at Klamath, men, women, and children, is about one hundred and fifty. The country in which they are located is not favorable to cultivation, and the inclination and habits of the Indians did not lead them to engage in industrial pursuits, nor are they likely to make any advancement in civilization under their present conditions.
      The cost of transportation to the Quapaw agency in the Indian Territory, should removal be determined upon, will not be far from $12,000, nearly all of which would be applicable to railroads, the interest of whose bonds are guarateed by the Government, and under existing law the money would not actually be withdrawn from the Treasury.
      I respectfully recommend that authority be given by Congress for the removal, and that the amount named be appropriated for the purpose of transportation; also, that the additional sum of $8,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, be appropriated for subsistence, and to defray such incidental expenses as may be incurred.
      Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. H. SMITH,
Indian Commissioner.

Hon. C. B. FISK,
Chairman Indian Commission


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      COLVILLE AGENCY. – The Colville, Lake Okinagan, San Poel, Nespeelum, Spokane, Callispel, and Melhow bands, making a total of 3,120 persons, are living for the most part in the Colville Valley, fishing, hunting, and cultivating small patches of ground. But few are living on the reserve, which is so rugged and barren that if the Indians are forced to remove thither they must either be wholly subsisted by the Government or starve. They have cultivated during the year 1,000 acres, besides 70 on the reserve; have raised 2,500 bushels of wheat and 2,000 of potatoes besides corn and turnips and have built 15 log houses. They own nearly 4,000 horses and 604 head of cattle. They have a log church built by themselves last year, and a boarding-school attended by 36 pupils, in which they take great pride.
      About 2,500 Indians are roaming on the Columbia River who have no treaty relations to the United States, and are turned renegades. They subsist mainly on fish, and have no desire to cultivate the ground. They have no cattle, but own large herds of horses which they pasture along the river, to the great annoyance and damage of settlers. They claim the country as theirs, but commit no serious depredations, though by dissolute habits and frequent trespasses they have occasioned a wide-spread anxiety and uneasiness among the white citizens. They cherish a superstitious belief, fostered by their old chief Imohalla, who is regarded as a prophet, that the white people will at no distant day disappear from the country, leaving them in undisturbed possession.
      NEAH BAY AGENCY. – This is located in the extreme northwest of the Territory, and has in charge the Makah Indians, numbering 559. Their reservation of 23,000 acres affords very little land suitable for cultivation. It has been somewhat enlarged and additional conveniences secured during the year by purchase, under appraisement, of the adjoining lands and improvements, known as the Webster property.
      The Makahs live almost entirely by fishing, and are little inclined to accept ordinary modes of civilized life. They have had schools, but no one of the tribe is reported as being able to read.
      QUINAIELT AGENCY. – About 540 Quinaielts, Queets, Hohs, and Quilleh Utes belong to this agency, but only the first two tribes are on the reserve, which is located along the coast in the northern part of the Territory, and contains 224,000 acres of heavily-timbered land, which is inaccessible for more than one-half the vear. Nothing in the way of farming can be accomplished, and the Indians procure their living from the sea and rivers.
      Respecting the desirability of consolidating this agency with that of Neah Bay, attention is called to the recommendations of the secretary of the Board of Indian Commissioners.
      S'K0KOMISH AGENCY. – The 850 S'Klallams and Twanas belonging to this agency three years ago were among the most hopeless and degraded Indians in the Territory. Only 200 were on the reservation. Six dilapidated dwellings, a small orchard, and about 50 acres, cleared several years before, and most of which had again grown up to brush, were the only evidences of an attempt at civilization. Their reservation on the S'kokomish River contains eight square miles, of which 1,300 acres are represented as suited to tillage and grazing, and the remainder of the land is classed in equal parts between wood and valueless.
      All the Twanas are now on the reservation, wear citizens' dress, and live in houses. They have cultivated 70 acres. Forty families, who have had lands allotted in severalty, have worked with diligence and enthusiasm in clearing and planting. They have cut and sold one and one-half million feet of saw-logs, all the labor being performed by themselves,


[Page 83]

with their own teams, and have built fifty houses, thirty during the past year. The school has an average attendance of over twenty pupils.
      The S'Klallams still object to removal to the reservation, preferring rather to forfeit their treaty-rights. Some have leased lands, while a portion have purchased a tract which they hold in common. They support themselves by working for white settlers and by fishing. A police force, organized under the direction of the agent, has materially checked intemperance among these Indians.
      The recommendation of the secretary of the Board of Indian Cominissiouers to bring other Indian bands upon this reservation under a consolidated agency is worthy of serious attention.
      TULALIP AGENCY has five different reservations, the Muckleshoot, Port Madison, Swinomish, Lummi, and Tulalip, comprising 52,648 acres, and with a population of 3,900.
      The Indians here seem to be much kept back by intercourse with the whites.
      Inspector Kemble says of the school of 50 students at this place:

      One of the boys read an address of welcome, composed by him, and which bore the signature of each boy in the school. The classes were called for examination, and made a very creditable showing, evincing a very intelligent apprehension of all they were asked to explain. Their cheerful, orderly, deportment would have shamed some of our white schools. I attribute the success of the Tulalip school in a great measure to the devoted efforts of the sisters who are engaged in it.

      A consolidation of these reservations is earnestly recommended by the secretary of the Board of Indian Commissioners.
      NISQUALLY, PUYALLUP, &C., AGENCY. – The Chehalis, Shoal-Water Bay, Hokeum, Whiskah, Humptalups, Chinooks, Cowlitz, and Klickatats, numbering in all 1,329 Indians, are located on six reservations, in the northwestern part of the Territory. For more particular information respecting these Indians and the desirableness of the consolidation of their reservations, reference is respectfully made to the above communication from the secretary of the Board of Indian Cornmissioners.
      Respecting Indian agencies in Oregon and Washington Territory, this general statement may be made. The past two years have been largely spent in adjusting the agencies to their new direct relations to the Office, resulting from the abolishment of their superintendencies; as a consequence, there are fewer indications of quickened interest and general inaprovement among these Indians than are found among tribes elsewhere.
      I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDW. P. SMITH,
Commissioner.

Hon. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.


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