NADP Homepage
  Back to Pages 38-51
  Forward to Pages 66-75

Smith to Secretary of the Interior, 1 November 1874, in United States, House, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 43rd Cong., H. Ex. Doc. 1, Part 5, Serial 1639, 52-65, NADP Document R874001D.
[Page 52]

WYOMING.

      SHOSHONE AGENCY. – A reservation containing one and one-half million acres in Wind River Valley was set apart by treaty in 1868 for the Shoshones, then vagrants and roamers in Wyoming. No attempt to carry out the provisions of the treaty were made until the fall of 1870, when an agency was established. In 1871 and 1872 buildings were erected, an agency farm cultivated, and every exertion made to induce the Indians to commence an agricultural life. In 1873, convinced at last that the Government was sincere in its promises of assistance, 791 Shoshones decided to settle down on the reservation and make their first attempt at farming. Men, women, and children worked industriously, a separate piece of ground being assigned to each family, and a bountiful harvest was the result. Inspired by this example, 216 others requested that similar assistance be rendered them the following year. These Indians have, with few exceptions, remained on the agency, and during the past year have cultivated 300 acres and broken 25; but all the crop, except potatoes, was severely damaged by grasshoppers, and they will barvest but 300 bushels each of wheat and oats, and 3,000 bushels of potatoes. They own 2,500 horses and 200 head of cattle, and have cut 75 tons of hay. Fifteen log-houses built during the year are occupied by Indians, and many more are asked for. In education but little interest has been excited. In order, neatness, and general health the improvement among these people is marked, and they are rapidly increasing in numbers.

COLORADO.

      LOS PINOS AND WHITE RIVER AGENCIES. – The Utes in Colorado have a reservation of 18,320 square miles, of which only a small proportion in the valleys of the Gunnison and Uncompagre are suited to agriculture. A large tract of nearly 4,000,000 acres of valuable mining-land was ceded by them to the Government in 1873. They are native to this section, and for years have maintained their friendship with the whites inviolate. Game is abundant, and they subsist principally by hunting, the larger portion of them being seen at their agency only on occasional visits, and showing as yet no disposition to undertake the labor of tilling the ground, but, in anticipation of the time when necessity shall force them to abandon their present mode of life, they hold tenaciously to all their farming and grass lands.
      There are two agencies for this reservation, the Los Pinos, for the Tabequache, Muache, Capote, and Weeminuche Utes, to the number of 2,763, which at present is located outside of the reservation on a branch of the Grand River, and which, to meet the immediate wants of the Indians, should be located in accordance with the treaty provisions on the Los Pinos River, and the White River agency, on a river of that name in the northern part, for the Grand River, Yampa, Uintah, and Peah's bands of Utes, to the number of 1,000. A small school has been opened at each agency, the former with 10 and the latter with 21 pupils. One Ute with his four sons on the Uncompagre and nine or ten Weeminuches on the Los Animas have, during the year, for the first time, cultivated a few acres and have raised fine crops. The Southern Utes own 6,500 horses, 300 cattle, and 1,000 sheep. The Northern Utes own 1,500 horses, 36 head of cattle and mules, and 100 goats.

UTAH.

      UINTAH VALLEY AGENCY. – Five hundred and seventy-five Utes are located on a reservation of 3,186 square miles in the Uintah Valley, which is accessible only four months in the year, and even then only by a road which


[Page 51]

in an ordinary country would be deemed impassable. Only 20,000 acres, in scattered patches, separated by streams and rocks, are susceptible of cultivation, and even this land is of inferior quality. The Indians, however, for the past two years have been much interested in farming. They have cultivated during the year 225 acres, an increase of 175 acres since 1871, and their crops consist of 1,500 bushels wheat, 450 bushels corn, 1,500 bushels potatoes, besides turnips, squashes and beans, which, compared with those of 1871, show an increase of 400 per cent. This, owing to the disadvantages under which they labor, represents a large amount of hard work. Fifty thousand feet of lumber have been sawed; poles for 600 rods of fence have been cut, hauled, and laid by the Indians themselves for the first time, and without any remuneration for their labor. A school-house is now in process of erection.

NEVADA.

      WALKER RIVER AGENCY. – About 800 Pah-Utes are located on two reservations in Western Nevada, called the Walker River and Pyramid Lake reserves, eighty miles apart, containing, including the lakes, 320,000 acres each, of which only 2,100 acres are susceptible of cultivation by irrigation. A canal two and one-half miles long was dug by the Indians at Walker River last year. The first serious effort in farming was made in 1872, only 50 acres being reported under cultivation in 1871. From the first all supplies have been issued only in return for labor. During the year just closed the Indians have cultivated 900 acres and broken 200. The crops consist of 1,800 bushels wheat, 110 bushels corn, 1,550 bushels barley, and 550 bushels potatoes. Nearly every acre available for tillage has been fenced and claimed by families for permanent homes; 1,800 rods of fencing have been built during the year. Many of the farms present a fine appearance. One Indian has not only raised enough for his own subsistence and for seed, but by sale of the surplus has paid for help in harvesting and thrashing, and has $75 in coin left. The trout fisheries on these reserves are very valuable. Besides a large amount consumed by themselves, the Indians have sold during the year nearly 62,000 pounds of fish, for which they have received about $7,000 in coin. These Indians all wear citizen's dress; they are asking for houses and schools, and are fast becoming a civilized community.
      The Pyramid Lake reservation, containing but 1,200 acres of arable land, has always been known as and occupied by the Pah-Utes as an Indian reservation. All their labor expended in the fencing and cultivating these 1,200 acres, in making flumes, irrigating-ditches and bridges and in building houses, has now become a total loss to these Indians, (who are a quiet, peaceable, industrious tribe, and would have soon become wholly self-supporting,) and the whole tract of country has been ruined and rendered utterly worthless as an Indian reservation by reason of the grant to the Central Pacific Railroad, as provided in the act of Congress approved July 27, 1874. (Stats. at Large, vol. 13, p. 356.)
      SOUTHEAST NEVADA AGENCY. – The Pai-Utes, in Southern Nevada and Southeastern California, numbering respectively 1,031 and 184, with 284 Utes in Northern Arizona and 528 in Utah, belong on a reservation containing 3,900 square miles in the southeastern part of Nevada, set apart by Executive order March 12, 1873. Only about 500 have as yet removed, owing partly to lack of funds for the purchase of supplies


[Page 54]

and the opening of farms, and partly to the continued presence of settlers in the Moapa Valley, where the only tillable land on the reserve (about 10,000 acres) is found. These Indians have always been an agricultural people, are willing to labor, and are ready to settle upon the reserve as soon as suitable provision can be made for their establishment. Those gathered there two years since have labored willingly and faithfully during the year, having cultivated 370 acres, which have yielded 5,400 bushels wheat, 800 bushels corn, 200 bushels barley, and 600 bushels beans. No supplies have been issued except in return for labor. Two years ago these Indians were living largely on roots, seeds, rabbits, mice, and lizards, in addition to what they could obtain by begging from the whites. They are now asking for houses, and show an interest in the education of their children, but the school, for want of funds, was discontinued last spring. Valuable salt-mines on the reserve, if permitted to be worked by the Indians, will yield a moderate revenue.
      The Western Shoshones, numbering 1,945, are divided into 31 tribes, scattered through Southeast Oregon, Southwest Idaho, and Central Nevada. Many of them farm small patches of land in Eastern Nevada or labor for white settlers, but they subsist mostly by begging, gathering seeds, digging roots, and hunting rabbits. A Government farmer, stationed at Hamilton, assists them in procuring ranches, in obtaining labor among the whites, issues a few seeds and is appealed to by both whites and Indians in the frequent cases of dispute arising between them. In their treaty, in which only one-fourth of these Shoshones took part, it was stipulated that, at the will of the President, they should be called on to a reservation. They express a willingness to remove to Fort Hall.
      One thousand Pai-Utes,in Western Nevada and Northeast California, and 460 Goship Utes in Nevada and Utah, and 134 Pah-Vants in Utah, are in much the same condition as the Western ShoshOnes, but more largely engaged in farming. The Pai Utes are allied to those already collected on the Malheur reservatiOn. They are anxious to obtain lands and a permanent home, and little difficulty would probably be experienced in inducing them to settle there. The other tribes are allied to those in Uintah Valley, and should be removed thither.

IDAHO.

      FORT HALL AGENCY – The Bannacks and Shoshones, numbering respectively 600 and 900, have a reservation of 2,160 square miles in Southwest Idaho. They are peaceable, willing to work, and ready to adopt citizen's dress. Aside from the agency-farm of 292 acres, only 28 acres belonging to individual Indians have been cultivated for themselves. A schoolhouse and four other buildings have been erected during the year, and the first school among these Indians was opened in September, taught by an educated Indian. The results of efforts to induce civilization upon this reservation have not so satisfactorily corresponded with expenditures as at most other points, and information is not now at hand by which the Office can account for these small results.
      The Indians of the Lemhi and Weiser have been ordered to remove to this reservation.
      NEZ PERCÉ AGENCY. – The Nez Percés, numbering 2,807, have maintained an unbroken peace with the Government. They have two reservations, sixty miles apart,, one in Northwest Idaho called the Lapwai reserve, and the other in Northeast Oregon, known as Kamiah. These contain


[Page 55]

1,925 square miles, of which only a small portion is suited to agriculture; about 1,550 Nez Percés are located on the reserves; about 350 have small farms of from 3 to 10 acres off the reservation, which they are unwilling to sell, and about 900 are vagrants in the, Wallowa Valley and on the Snake and Salmon Rivers, where they have roamed for generations. These latter have never come into any treaty relations with, and will accept nothing from, the Government; are bitterly opposed to the treaty Indians, and are a constant annoyance to settlers, with whom they have frequent quarrels. A portion of those on the reserve are non-treaty Indians, who plant in the spring but often neglect their farms and roam off to the root-grounds, or wherever inclination prompts. The influence of all these "non-treaties" in their continued and often successful attempts to induce the more civilized Indians to abandon their farms for hunting is a very serious obstacle to progress among the Nez Percés. The head chief and his subordinates are elected annually by the treaty Indians, the "non-treaties" refusing to take any part in the matter. The influence of the present chief, elected in July last, is all on the right side.
      Eighteen hundred acres have been cultivated this season, an increase Of 500 aeres in two years, from which will be realized 12,000 bushels of wheat. 2,000 bushels of corn, 5,000 bushels of oats, and 2,500 bushels of potatoes, most of which has been raised at Kamiah. The Lapwai Indians have lost almost their entire crop by drought and crickets. Last year the sale of the surplus wheat raised by the Nez Percés, fornmed quite a large source of revenue to them. They have cut and sold 300 cords wood at $1 in coin per cord, and put 300 saw-logs into the boom. Ten houses have been built, making a total of 43. Five hundred wear citizen's dress; one hundred can read, and quite an interest is shown in education. The two boarding-schools and one day-school have an attendance of ninety pupils. All the Nez Percés raise stock. They own 12,000 horses, 50 mules, 7,000 cattle, (a natural increase of 2,600 in the last year,) and 500 hogs.
      The peace and prosperity of this agency have been disturbed for some years past by what is known as the "Langford claim." This is the claim of William G. Langford to 640 acres of land within the Nez Percé Indian reservation in Idaho Territory. Langford inakes this claim as assignee of the American Board of Conimissioners for Foreign Missions, a religious corporation established under the laws of the State of Massachusetts, and having its principal office in Boston.
      The Nez Percé reservation is a tract of land set apart for the Nez Percé Indians by the provisions of the treaty of June 9, 1863, (U. S. Stats., vol. 14, p. 647,) from the large tract previously claimed by them, and which, by treaty of June 11, 1865, (U. S. Stats., vol. 12, p. 957,) was reserved for them, from a still larger tract, the remainder of which they ceded at that time to the United States. This reservation, as established by the treaty of 1863, is recognized as belonging to these Indians, and is guaranteed to them both by the treaties of 1855 and 1863, and the existence of "Indian title" thereto running back to the first knowledge of the country, is as clear in this case as it can be in any. The missionary board above mentioned sent missionaries to this reserve in 1836, who settled upon the land in question. There is evidence of a continued residence and cultivation of the soil, erection of a mill, school-house, and other buildings, down to 1847, when, on account of an Indian outbreak, the place was abandoned. Over six months after this station had been abandoned, namely, Au-


[Page 56]

gust 14, 1848, Congress passed an act providing for a territorial government in Oregon, (U. S. Stats. at Large, Vol. 9, p. 323,) in the first section of which is the following language:

      And provided also, That the title to the land, not exceeding six hundred and forty acres, now occupied as missionary stations among the Indian tribes in said territory, together with the improvements thereon, be confirmed and established in the several religious societies to which said missionary stations respectively belong.

      The tract of land in question was within the limits of Washington Territory when established. The first section of the act of Congress of March 2, 1853, establishing the territorial government of Washington, (U. S. Stats., Vol. 10, p. 172,) contains the following provisions:

      Provided further, That the title to the land, not exceeding six hundred and forty acres, now occupied as missionary stations among the Indian tribes in said Territory, or that may have been so occupied as missionary stations prior to the passage of the act establishing the territorial government of Oregon, together with the improvements thereon, be, and is hereby, confirmed and established to the several religious societies to which said missionary stations respectively belong.

      The reservation is now within the limits of Idaho Territory, the organic act of which, dated March 3, 1863, (U. S. Stats. at Large, Vol. 12, p. 809,) contains no provisions on the subject of the mission claims. The first evidence that can be found in the files of this Office of the claim of the said board of missionaries being asserted to said land after the abandonment, is contained in their notice to Agent Hutchins, at Nez Percé agency, under date of May 2, 1862.
      The following month Agent Hutchins reported to the Office the fact of said claim having been made by the board, and that it covered the ground on which the agency was situated. It does not appear from the records of this Office that any definite action was taken in reference to the claim of the American board until 1867, when the United 6tates district attorney was requested to defend the suit. On the 23d of July, 1869, J. W. Huston, esq., United States attorney for the district of Idaho, reported that it would be necessary for him to be in attendance at other courts when this case would be tried, and by office-letter of the 11th of August, 1869, he was requested to apply to Judge Kelley, the presiding judge, for the appointment of John Cummins, of Boise City, Idaho Territory, to defend the suit. On the 25th of October, 1869, District Attorney Huston inclosed a letter from Judge Kelley, stating that Mr. Cummins had failed to put in an appearance, and inasmuch as the case had been on the docket for three terms without any defense, the motion of the plaintiffs for judgment was granted by the court. The United States district attorney was distinctly instructed to ask a reopening of the case, to which the Government was fairly entitled, or to take an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States within the time prescribed by the statutes of Idaho Territory, but it does not appear that any action was taken by this officer in the premises.
      The above facts having been submitted on the 13th of December, 1869, to the Department, the Secretary of the Interior, under date of January 19, 1870, instructed this Office that, "the land claimed by the mission board being within the diminished reserve of the Nez Percé Indians, and never having heen relinquished by said Indians, will be retained for their agency purposes." Acting under these instructions of the Department, this Office has held this tract for agency purposes until recently. And it appears from the books of this Office that the following sums have been appropriated and placed in the hands of the agent of the Nez Percé Indians, since 1860, for improvements on the lands


[Page 57]

occupied by the agency, and it is presumed have been expended for such purposes, viz:

For the erection of schools and church-buildings   ...................... $24,700
For the erection of blacksmith-shop ...................... 5,500
For the erection of saw and flouring mill ...................... 19,000
For the erection of hospital-building ...................... 2,400
For the erection of buildings for employés ...................... 6,500
For the erection of buildings for chiefs ...................... 34,000
Total     ...................... 92,100

      In addition to the foregoing, the sum of $1,600 is appropriated annually for keeping said buildings in repair &c. There are also embraced within the 640 acres occupied by the agency fifteen Indian farms, improved and cultivated for the use of the Indians of the agency.
      It was evidently the intention of Congress to insure permanency to these missionaries, who had gone as pioneeers into this country to labor among the Indians and to insure them a title to the lands which they had improved and upon which their buildings were situated; but, unfortunately, this claim was apparently abandoned by the missionaries, and, after large improvements had been made thereon, was conveyed to Mr. Langford, who has procured from the courts what it seems must now be recognized as a valid title.
      In view of these facts this Office has disliked to see any recognition given to the claim, but, in view of the facts as above stated, a recommendation for an appropriation by Congress to purchase the tract of Mr. Langford has been made at the last two sessions, and last winter a compromise was agreed upon with Langford, he agreeing to take in full consideration of his claim the sum of $15,000; but Congress failed to make. appropriation of this amount and Mr. Langford is now in possession of the tract, which includes all the agency buildings, as is evidenced by a telegram from J. B. Monteith, United States agent for the Nez Percé Indians, dated Lapwai, Idaho, November 16, 1874, in which he states that the sheriff has placed Langford in possession of the agency.
      It is now necessary that provision be made to satisfy Langford to relinquish his claim to the United States, as, except by his permission, the United States will be deprived of the use of the agency-buildings, which include mills, school-houses, &c., and many of the Indians will be deprived of the use of their farms; and the agent has written that he anticipated trouble from the Indians, who threatened to burn the buildings if Langford took possession. To the present date no demonstrations of this kind have been reported, and the agent reports that he hopes to keep the Indians quiet. He has been directed to call upon the military to protect the property if necessary, and the General of the Army has given orders to the proper military officer to co-operate with the agent.

      Bands of Cœur d'Alénes, Kootenays, and Pend d'Oreilles, estimated to number about 1,000, and having no treaty relations with the United States, are roaming in Northwestern Idaho. The Cœur d'Alénes, who have never settled upon the reservation set apart for them by Executive order in 1867, were last year visited by a special commission, of which J.P.C. Shanks was chairman, and agreed to relinquish their claim to Northern Idaho, on condition that the Government supply them with stock and farming implements, and to remain upon the reservation, provided its boundaries should be changed so as to include the Cœur d'Aléne mission and some farming-lands in the valley of the Lotah or Hangman's


[Page 58]

Creek. The lands were withdrawn by Executive order for the use of these Indians, in accordance with lines agreed upon with the cominission; but the necessary legislation confirming this negotiation has not vet been enacted.

ARIZONA.

      SAN CARLOS AGENCY. – The Pinal and Aribapa Apaches and the Tontos, numbering respectively 414, 94, and 384, are on the San Carlos division of the White Mountain reservation, containing 3,950 square miles, to which most of them were removed last year from Old Camp Grant. These Indians remained generally qniet under reservation restraint until the last of January, 1874, when the main body of them being cut off from communication with the agency for several days by a rapid rise in the Gila River, during which time they were visited by outlaws and a chief who had just made his escape from confinement and indulged freely in tisivin, a party of about fifteen attacked a flour-train forced to camp near, and killed one man and mortally wounded another, and then fled to the mountains, followed by all the Indians of the reservation. Three days later a party of forty or fifty of these Indians murdered five white persons at Old Camp Grant. These bands were then considered hostile, and were chased and hunted by the military until, utterly broken and subdued, they begged for peace and permission to return to the reservation, which permission was withheld until they had brought in the heads of the four outlaws. On their return they were disarmed, and immediately began to build for themselves small log and brush houses near the agency. A police force of four Indians, at $15 each per mouth, renders very efficient assistance to the agent in maintaining order.
      Previous to the outbreak a farm of 175 acres was cultivated by Indians, under direction of the agency employés, which yielded 500 bushels of wheat and 250 acres of barley; 50 acres plowed for a second crop will yield about 450 bushels of corn and 250 bushels of beans. Permanent agency-buildings are now being erected. The Indians are glad to obtain work at 50 cents a day, and labor faithfully.
      CAMP APACHE AGENCY. – The White Mountain or Coyetero Apaches to the number of about 1,675 are located at Camp Apache, in the northern part of the White Mountain reservation, which was set apart by Executive order in 1871. At that time they were on the war-path, and among the wildest and most intractable of the Apaches, but have been reduced to complete subjection by the military operations of General Crook. At the end of their year on a reservation, the agent reports them as having been obedient, docile, and industrious. They have dug five miles of ditch for irrigation, cultivated 100 acres, raised 6,000 bushels of corn, and cut and delivered 150 tons of hay.
      The result of the year's effort of the Department with these Indians, both at this agency and San Carlos, assisted by the military, is highly encouraging. Under the military operations to which they have been subjected they have often suffered severely in paying the penalty for crimes, and not unfrequently, it is probable, have suffered as severely from their ignorance and misapprehension of what was required by the military. They are now in a condition to be treated by the Department as other Indians, and should be brought at once under its entire control, with the definite understanding on the part of the Indians that they are strictly responsible to the military for any wrong-doing, and are liable to be attacked and punished whenever found off their reservation. With hearty co-operation by the military on this plan, it is believed there will be little cause for an agent to call for actual service of troops, and all


[Page 59]

military force might be removed to quite a distance from the respective agencies. Such an arrangement will greatly increase the efficiency of agency-administration, and will avoid the complications which are now occurring between the military and employés of the Bureau incident to the present state of divided responsibility.
      CHIRICAHUA AGENcy. – The Southern Chiricahuas or Pinery Indians, numbering 290, Cochise's band of 365 Apaches, and 275 Mimbre, Mogollon and Coyetero Apaches, are on a reservation of 4,275 square miles, in the southeast corner of the Territory. For thirteen years Cochise and his allies occupied the fastnesses of the Dragoon Mountains, and by constant raiding and bloody warfare became a terror to all settlers and travelers in Southeastern Arizona. In 1872 he was induced by Agent Jeffords to meet General 0. 0. Howard, with whom he made a treaty of peace, and proceeded with his tribe to the reservation, and was soon followed by the Chiricahuas and smaller bands in that vicinity. From that date to the day of his death, the 8th of June last, he kept his treaty inviolate, and was a firm friend of the agent, to whom he compelled all his people to render strict obedience. These Indians, almost without exception, have remained on the reservation during the year, and have not even been accused of any depredations in Arizona. Theft, lying, and immorality are unknown among them. They have for generations lived in the mountains, and, unlike the rest of the Apaches, know nothing of agriculture. Their immense reservation has only a few acres of tillable land, and this at a point too unhealthy for habitation. No effort has been made, or can be, to induce, these Indians to labor as they are now situated.
      On account of the proximity of this reservation to Mexico, it is difficult to prevent raiding incursions into that country. Serious complaints have been made by the Mexican authorities of raiding during the year. The agent, however, is inclined to shield his Indians from this charge by implicating Indians from other reservations, who pass across the Chiricahua on their way to Mexico, and make it a refuge on their return with booty. For these reasons, it is desirable that these Indians should be removed to the Hot Springs reservation, in New Mexico.
      The following extracts from report of Agent Jeffords show the attitude taken by the new chief:

      I am sorry to announce that Cochise, the head chief of the Apaches on this reservation, expired on the 8th instant. His last words to his people were to come to the agency – men, women and children – and live at peace with our people; always do as I told them, and see that none of the bad Indians upon the reservation ever harmed me; that so long as they did as I told them they would be a happy people.
      After the burial I called the people together and held a council with the men of the tribe. They unanimously declared they were ready to obey any orders I should give them, and do anything I told them to do, but that now that their great captain was gone I must stay and take care of them. Taza, the new chief, said, "Heretofore it has been universally known through this country that my father has taken care of this tribe. I have not been known to the people, but I will endeavor to show the world I can take care of them as well as my father."

      PAPAGO AGENCY. – The Papagoes, numbering nearly 6,000, furnish another instance, like that of the Pimas, in which, under the prevailing Indian system of this Government, Mexican citizens have been reduced to helpless wards, without lands, and without rights of any kind which any man is bound to respect. They are residing mainly in their original homes, in the vicinity of Tucson, where they cultivate small farms, and in Tuscon labor for the settlers. Since the peace established between them and the Apaches, in 1872, they are no longer impoverished by raids, and their condition is much improved. Eighty-nine children


[Page 60]

attend school. These Papagoes are liable at any time to have their lands, which they have cultivated for many generations, entered under the pre-emption act by white settlers. Their necessity is a qualified citizenship, which will allow them to enter public lands and receive protection in the courts.
      PIMA AND MARICOPA AGENCY. – The 4,000 Pimas and 300 Maricopas occupy a reservation of 64,000 acres, only a small portion of which is capable of irrigation, the remainder being barren mesa along the Gila River. They have always been friendly to the whites, but are the hereditary eneinies of the Apaches. They are an industrious, agricultural people, who pride themselves on being self-supporting. The lack of water in the river for several years past has forced many to cultivate farms outside of the reserve, thus coming into contact and frequent collision with the settlers. For this reason a delegation from these tribes, in September last, made a visit to the Indian Territory looking toward removal thither. Though the report was favorable, the main body of the Indians oppose any such change. Owing to an unusual rain-fall, the crops this year are abundant, consisting of 50,000 bushels wheat, 4,000 bushels barley, and 500 bushels corn. All wear citizens' dress, and live in houses built by themselves. The three schools among them have an attendance of 101 pupils.
      There is no reason why these people should be longer kept debarred from the rights and privileges which they formerly had as Mexican citizens. If there cannot be such a recognition of this right as will permit them as other citizens to enter and occupy lands where they find them, the necessity of making provisions for them is immediate and inevitable; and unless water can be secured by means of artesian wells, in accordance with a suggestion of the governor of Arizona, it will be necessary to remove them on to the Colorado River reservation. This latter course is deemed entirely practicable if consent of the Indians can be obtained, and such legislation can be procured as will secure a fair compensation for their present reservation, and afford the means necessary to establish them comfortably on the Colorado River reserve.
      RIO VERDE AGENCY. – In July, 1870, a tribe of 225 Apache Mojaves came to the military post at Camp Date Creek, and entered into a formal treaty of peace with General Crook. They were afterward joined by others till they numbered over 700, and in May, 1873, were removed to the Rio Verde and located on a reservation forty miles long and ten miles wide on each side of that river. Others, forced by the military to submission, have been ordered to this reserve until the whole number in June last was 1,544, consisting of 678 Yumas, 678 Apache Mojaves, and 497 Apache Tontos. These Indians, most of whom but a short time ago were on the war-path, have been largely engaged during the year, in the construction of one and one-quarter miles of irrigating ditch, in the making of 15,000 adobes, at 50 cents per day, and in the cultivation of over 50 acres from which they will realize about 75,000 pounds of corn and 2,000 pounds of potatoes, besides a large supply of pumpkins and melons. They have improved their homes, are proud of their gardens, and show an interest in, and readiness to adopt, a civilized mode of life. Their willingness to labor, with fair inducements, is shown by the following extract from report of Colonel Mason, temporarily in charge during illness of the agent:

      A talk was had with the chiefs and captains of the different tribes on the 24th of April, when I informed them that I contemplated building a dam and irrigating ditch for their use and benefit, and should require all the labor I could get, giving no other compensation than such rations and clothing as was supplied by the Indian Depart-


[Page 61]

ment. All promised me assistance, and April 27 was fixed upon as the day to commence work. Promptly at 7 o'clock a.m. all the male Indians on the reservation appeared at the agency. Eighty, selected proportionally from the different tribes, were immediately set to work on the ditch. At this date ten days' work has been porformed, resulting in a ditch 4,000 feet long with ample capacity for all requirements. The labor has been performed willingly without the promise of compensation, and I anticipate no difficulty in procuring gratuitous labor to complete the work commenced.

      MOQUIS PUEBLO AGENCY. – The Moquis Pueblos, numbering 1,407, have seven villages on a rocky, isolated, and almost inaccessible mesa in Northeastern Arizona. They have received but little assistance from the Government, beyond that afforded by the presence of an agent and a school-teacher. Efforts have been made to induce them to remove to a reservation on the Chiquita River, where abundant agricultural lands are offered them, but their terror of the Apaches prevents them from even a thoughtful consideration of the proposition. All small patches of land scattered around them susceptible of tillage have been brought under cultivation. They raise peaches and apricots, as well as corn and vegetables, and have small flocks of sheep and goats. They are exceedingly superstitious, holding tenaciously to all their ancient customs, but are peaceable and industrious, and if they could be induced to remove to a country capable of their support they would soon come to be a thriving people. It is proposed to adopt more vigorous efforts for promoting education among them.
      COLORADO RIVER AGENCY. – The Mojaves to the number of 830, and the Hualapais numberiug 620, are located on a reserve of 117 square miles on the Colorado River. The Hualapais came to the reserve from the northwestern part of Arizona in May last. Although they have hitherto subsisted entirely upon the hunt, they are growing quite content with. their changed life, and have already begun to plant, and display an interest in agriculture.
      An irrigating-canal, nine miles long, was opened in June last, and will be put in complete working-order this winter, when sufficient land can be cultivated to speedily render these Indians self-supporting, and warrant the removal of the remaining river-tribes to this reservation. The Mojaves have done most of this work, and labored the past winter for their rations alone, taking a great interest in its completion. The reservation has about 50,000 acres of land which can be cultivated with irrigation. Corn, wheat, ahd pumpkins are now the chief products, but cotton and sugar can be successfully raised. The crops for the year just closed cousist of 400 bushels of wheat, 300 bushels each of corn and beans, 9 tons of melons, and a quantity of pumpkins.
      A school was maintained during the winter with an attendance of forty-eight scholars, and much interest in it was manifested, but it can only be made of permanent benefit by the addition of a boarding and manual-labor department. With wisely-administered aid, the agent states that the 1,400 Indians now on the reservation can be made entirely self-supporting within two years. They are, as a community, the most temperate people in the Territory, though there is no lack of opportunity for obtaining whisky.
      The remaining river-tribes belonging on this reservation are 450 Chimhuevas, who have lately been induced to abandon their roving life, and are settled down on the California side of the river, forty miles below the reserve; 930 Yumas, at Fort Yuma; 700 Mojaves, at Fort Mojave, and 150 Coahuillas, and 180 Cocopahs, south of Fort Yuma. These now obtain a precarious living by planting on land watered by the overflow of the river, with occasional aid from the agent to prevent suffering. He does not advise their removal to the reservation until


[Page 62]

the amount of land irrigated is sufficient to have them at once labor for their own support. The presence of troops at this reserve is a serious obstacle to all good effort in their behalf, and is in spite of the repeated remonstrance of the agent.
      It is believed that only two permanent reservations will be required for Indians in Arizona heretofore treated as hostile: the White Mountain, including Apache and San Carlos agencies, and Colorado River. The Verde reservation should be broken up and the Indians removed to San Carlos. Chiricahua agency should be transferred to Hot Springs, in New Mexico. By this consolidation Indian affairs in Arizona would be vastly simplified, and capable of much more economical administration. Each of these reservations offers a country suitable for herding and agriculture. The main expense will consist in "taking out" ditches for irrigation, but the crops of a single year, computed at Arizona prices, which include heavy transportation, will more than cover the expense.

NEW MEXICO.

      NAVAJO AGENCY. – The Navajos, occupying a reservation ninety miles by sixty in Northwestern Arizona and Northeastern New Mexico, number 9,068, besides whom there are about 2,000 living off the reserve, seldom or never visiting the agency, who raise crops sufficient for their own support, and need assistance only in the way of civilization and house-building, with some instructions as to improved methods of farming. The Navajoes are an industrious, agricultural, and pastoral people, giving especial attention to sheep-raising, from the wool of which they manufacture a superior blanket. Their flocks were reduced nearly 40,000 by the severe cold of last winter. They now own about 130,000 sheep and 10,000 horses. Their crops, which are often injured by early frost, seldom last them beyond December 1, from which time till their next crop the reservation Indians are partially dependent on Government bounty. It is desirable that their farming-lands be extended by the addition of a strip of country on the south, six by sixty miles, in exchange for an equal amount upon the north side of their reservation.
      A police-force consisting of 200 of the chiefs and principal men, organized last summer, has been very efficient in the arrest and punishment of Indian thieves, and in the return of stolen stock to the owner.
      Though day-schools have been maintained among them ever since their removal from the Bosque Redondo five years since, the agent reports almost no benefit therefrom owing, to the irregularity of attendance. Of the 2,963 children on the reservation only 82 have been reached during the year. The establishment of boarding-schools among them is an imperative necessity. A home for 28 children was opened this year. From present appearances the Navajoes are likely to enter quite earnestly upon a plan of civilization offered them, provided suitable land for pasturage can be secured.
      PUEBLO AGENCY. – The Pueblos are a virtuous, temperate, industrious, self-governing, and self-supporting people, retaining the manners, customs, and religious notions of their ancestors, the Aztecs, and still looking for Montezuma to return. Many ruins of pueblos show them to have once been a powerful people, long ago reduced in numbers and prosperity by successive subjugations by and revolts from the Spaniards. They number about 9,500, and are gathered in 19 villages in the northern part of the Territory, where they have cultivated farms for generations, raising grain, vegetables, and fruit; also cattle, sheep, and goats. These lands were confirmed to them by act of Congress, December 22,


[Page 63]

1858. Those near the Rio Grande support themselves comfortably; those more remote, depending upon small streams and rain-falls, often suffer severely by loss of crops. Their crops this year are very large. They are very skillful in the manufacture of pottery, which they sell to the Mexicans in exchange for food when their harvests fail. Each village has its governor and other officers; a court composed of three old men, from whose decision appeal is rarely made, and over all a "cacique," or high priest, elected for life. They live in adobe houses from two to five stories high, entered from the roof, which is reached by ladders. They are subjected to great hardships by reason of frequent depredations and encroachments upon their lands and water-rights by Mexicans, for which they can obtain no redress in the Mexican courts, and they look to the agent as the sole protector of their interests. Until within three years they have been opposed to schools, principally through the influence of outside parties. This prejudice is now in great measure overcome. Eight schools have been in operation during most of the year, attended by 298 pupils. Three additional schools were asked for by the Indians, but there were no funds for their support.
      CIMMARON AND ABQUIU AGENCIES. – The (960) Jicarilla Apaches and (1,590) Capote, Muache, and Weeminuche Utes, under these agencies, are living upon private land-grants in a section rapidly being filled up by settlers. The Utes were parties to the. treaty of 1873 at Los Pinos, and agreed to remove to the southern part of the Ute reservation as soon as an agency should be established there. They are peaceable and spend most of their time in hunting, returning to the agencies for provisions when game is scarce. The Apaches are idle, thievish vagabonds, constantly committing petty depredations and roving among the Mexican towns, where they obtain liquor freely and learn the worst vices with surprising readiness.
      An ineffectual attempt was made in 1872 to induce the Cimarron Apaches to join the Mescaleros. A reservation for the Jicarillas was set apart by Executive order in March last in New Mexico, west of the Navajoes. Until they shall have been removed and appliances provided for their settlement, and the ordinary inducements to Indian labor brought to bear upon them, there call be no reason to hope for any improvement among them; but, meanwhile, by the issue of rations sufficient to satisfy their hunger they can be kept to a large extent from committing serious depredations.
      SOUTHERN APACHE AGENCY. – The Southern Apaches, 400 in number, the most intractable and indolent tribe in New Mexico, have just been removed from Tulerosa to Cañada Almosa, their old home near the Hot Springs, which has been set apart as their permanent reservation. The past year, for the first time in their history, these Indians have been induced to work. Several old chiefs and young men in the spring helped on a dam and irrigating-ditch at Tulerosa, and made a fine start in farming. Early frosts and their rumored removal soon caused them to abandon their work, and the crops were a failure.
      MESCALER0 AGENCY. – About 600 Mescaleros are located near Fort Stanton. The rest of the tribe are among the Comanches and in Old Mexico, many of whom are reported to be on their way to join their friends on the reservation. They are restless, roving Indians, subsisting by hunting and Government rations. They are making no progress in civilization, and even if they desired to farm their proposed reservation affords no suitable land. They were formerly located on the Bosque Redondo reservation, but unable to live peaceably with the Navajos,


[Page 64]

who were removed there in 1864, they left the reserve and, until collected at Fort Stanton, were more or less engaged in raiding. Since then, under the effective surveillance of the military, they have committed very few depredations.

NORTH CAROLINA.

      The Eastern Cherokees in North Carolina, and the adjacent States of Georgia and Tennessee, numbering about two thousand, being those who decided to remain and become citizens when the main body of the Cherokee people removed West in 1838, are not under the care of an agent of the Department, and the condition of those in North Carolina has long been very unsatisfactory. They suffered much during the late war, and being in an impoverished condition, desired to be brought under the immediate charge of the Government as its wards. With a view to this, Congress, by law, approved July 27, 1868, enacted that the Secretary of the Interior should cause the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to take the same charge of them as of other tribes of Indians. Owing, however, to the failure, or want of any positive law on the subject, and the lack of appropriations for the purpose, but little has been accomplished. A special agent was sent out by the Department in 1869, to take a census of these people, and make payment of the interest-money on a per capita fund, set apart for the benefit of such as were enrolled, and their descendants, under the act of Congress, approved July 29, 1838. These Indians have no reservation, and such as have land or property hold the same as citizens, and under treaty stipulations have little or no claims upon the Government. During the time William H. Thomas was agent for the Cherokees in North Carolina, it appears that he made an arrangement with them through their chiefs and headmen to use the money received in payment of the per capita fund due the Cherokees arising out of the treaty of 1835-'36, for the purchase of land, with the understanding that each person or family should receive a title for a quantity of land in proportion to the amount paid. Under this arrangement 38,000 acres were purchased by said Thomas, for which $34,000 were paid. At subsequent times additional land was purchased, not included in the original authority or agreement, amounting to 13,000 acres, at a cost of $17,000, and most of the lands embraced in said purchase have been occupied by said Cherokees since the date of purchase, but, with the exception of perhaps less than a dozen of cases, without a shadow of title from the said Thomas or any one else. Thomas took a title to said purchases of land in his own name; afterward became insolvent, and in 1859 confessed judgment to one T. Johnson for $30,000, and under this judgment all the Cherokee lands, where the title was apparently in Thomas, were sold by the sheriff, and bought by the said Johnson. At the instance of friends of the Cherokees, an action was brought against said Thomas, Johnson, and others, in the circuit court of the United States for the western district of North Carolina, for the purpose of confirming or decreeing the title to the lands purchased by the said Thomas in the said Cherokees. While the suit was pending, Congress by an act approved June 23, 1874, appropriated $15,000, or so much thereof as was necessary, to survey the land of the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior. A special agent was appointed by the Department, and, under instructions from the General Land Office, proceeded to North Carolina for the purpose of ascertaining the location of the lands claimed by said Cherokees, in order that a sur-


[Page 65]

veyor might be properly instructed to survey the exterior boundary lines, at least, of said lands.
      The court above referred to appointed a board of arbitrators, with the consent of the parties in interest, to settle the whole matter then pending. The terms of this agreement for reference to arbitration were that the reference should go into effect when approved by R. P. Dick, United States district judge, the Secretary of the Interior, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and the Department of Justice. The agreement of reference was approved by these parties. By the terms of this agreement for reference it is provided that the award of a majority of the arbitrators shall be a rule of court in all matters involved in the pending suits, and shall be final and forever obligatory between the parties as to all matters referred.
      The award has been made and approved by the court; and while it is represented that said board of arbitrators failed to award to the Cherokees all the lands claimed by them and by the special agent of the Department last referred to, it is hoped that in the main it may be satisfactory to the parties in interest, and thus settle a complex and intricate matter of long standing.
      The Cherokees are in great need of a competent, trustworthy adviser, under whose direction they may now be able to settle the pending questions respecting their property rights, and also be furnished with school-facilities for their children.

INDIAN TERRITORY.

      QUAPAW AGENCY. – This agency includes 236 Quapaws, 212 confederated Peorias and Miamies, 142 Ottawas, 90 Eastern Shawnees, 239 Wyandotts, 207 Senecas, and 147 Modocs, who are located in adjacent reservations in the northeast part of the Territory, containing in all 201,667 acres of valuable farming and wood lands. All of these Indians wear citizen's dress, live in houses, have abandoned the chase, and depend more or less on the cultivation of the soil for subsistence. Their country was invaded by both armies during the late war, causing much destruction of property, and generally retarding civilization.
      The Quapaws are still the most indolent and backward of them all, greatly given to intoxication, and by the partial failure of crops must suffer during the coming winter unless assistance is furnished.
      The Peorias include the smaller tribe of Weas, Kaskaskias, and Piankeshaws who were with them removed from Kansas in 1867. They were joined in 1872 by forty Miamies, whose lands in Kansas were appraised and sold. A delay in securing the permanent consolidation of these two tribes has been unfortunate, but they are making valuable improvements on their reserve, and are interested in their school.
      The remnant of the Modocs who were removed here from Washington Territory in November last, have been entirely peaceable and industrious. They are satisfied with their new home, interested in farming, have sent thirty children to school, and are very desirous that the rest of their band should join them.
      The remaining tribes are making steady progress. They are as comfortably situated as most of their white neighbors, and all their children of proper age attend school. The whole number of acres cultivated by the tribes of this agency is 5,131, an increase of 30 per cent. since 1872. They have raised 25,207 bushels of wheat, corn, and oats; made 12,011 rods of fence, and planted nearly 10,000 fruit-trees.


  Forward to Pages 66-75
  NADP Homepage