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Smith to Secretary of the Interior, 1 November 1874, in United States, House, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 43rd Cong., H. Ex. Doc. 1, Part 5, Serial 1639, 38-51, NADP Document R874001C.
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      In addition to the causes assigned above by Superintendent White for the large failure in the effort to entirely remove the Winnebagoes from Wisconsin, mention should be made of the persistent effort on the part of three or four persons who had formerly lived with these vagrants in Wisconsin and enjoyed a certain profit in their berry-trade, first, to dissuade them from consenting to go, and afterward, by misrepresentations and all possible false inducements, to lead them to run away from their agent in Nebraska, and return to their haunts and vagabondism in Wisconsin. Among other inducements offered was that, of homesteads, varying in extent from one to three acres, which have been located on abandoned pine barrens absolutely worthless, except as a home for vagabondism where it may abide unreached and uncured.

KANSAS.

      KICKAPOO AND POTTAWATOMIE AGENCIES. – These have been consolidated under one agent.
      The Kickapoos, to the number of 266, have a fertile reservation in the northeastern part of Kansas containing 20,272 acres, of which 9,137 have been allotted in severaltv. The tribe formerly lived in Illinois. A large part of it emigrated to Mexico, and were afterward joined during the war by about 100 from Kansas, who were dissatisfied with the terms of the treaty of 1863. The Mexican Kickapoos, by their frequent raids on the border, have been a source of annoyance and danger to the citizens of Texas, and an effort was made last year, through a special commission, to remove them to a reservation in the central part of the Indian Territory, which was largely successful. Many of the Kansas Kickapoos have a strong desire to join their brethren in the Indian Territory, and are not inclined to make improvement until the matter is decided.
      The tribe, as a whole, however, are industrious, nearly self-supporting and evince great interest in the education of their children. They wear citizens' dress, live in houses, are well supplied with agricultural implements, and make a good living from the soil. They have exchanged a large number of their ponies for a smaller number of good horses, a change which is very favorable to their farming interests; 1,180 acres were planted in wheat, oats, corn, and potatoes, but chinch-bugs, drought, and grasshoppers have destroyed their crops, leaving them in a very destitute condition. Ten houses have been built this season by Indian labor.
      Sixty pupils have been instructed in the boarding-school, and have made good progress. Special attention has been given to instruction in the proper preparation of food, and with such success that the older girls are in danger of being kept from school on account of their increased usefulness at home.
      The two churches, in charge of native pastors, have a membership of 135.
      The Pottawatomies number 467, and are that portion known as the Prairie band of Pottawatomies, who, tinder the fourth article of the treaty of December 15, 1861, decided to hold their lands and money in common. The larger part of the nation, numbering 1,400, became citizens and received their land in fee. Several hundred of these new "citizens" shortly after repaired to Mexico, and from this refuge in a foreign country have frequently indulged in raiding on ranches and herds of stock in Texas. A special commission was appointed last year to in-


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duce them to return, with the Southern Kickapoos, to their own country. Many others, especially the full-blooded Indians, who became "citizens," are reported by the agent as not having in anywise improved their condition by being thrust unprepared and without sufficient guard into the responsibilities and competition of a civilized life. Several families of Kansas "citizens" have come back from Mexico, and are surprised to learn that they are not still Indians, and that during their absence, upon affidavits before the court that the said "citizens" were dead, in many cases administrators, duly appointed under the laws of Kansas, have administered upon their moneys and effects.
      The reservation contains 17,357 acres, excellent for both tillage and grazing, and fairly wooded. The number of acres cultivated has nearly trebled in two years, and is now 500. Agent Newlin reports:

      Every head of a family has a farm or cultivated field, generally improved by a house and orchard, and always by a substantial fence. They have abandoned hunting for game as a means of sustaining life, and with the assistance of their annuity, which is liberal, depend upon their fields for subsistence for themselves and stock.
      Though their crops were cut short last year by drought, they commenced farming operations the fo11owing spring with more than usual energy. Their method of farming was greatly improved through the introduction of modern farming-implements, and their fields gave promise of a bountiful harvest, when a succession of visitations in the shape of chinch-bugs, drought, and finally grasshoppers, have destroyed the last vestige of vegetation, leaving the Indians entirely dependent on their annuity, which will be of needed assistance to them during the ensuing year, though I believe the payment of money annuities to be an obstacle in the path of the advancement of the Indians.

      They own 650 horses, 200 head of cattle, and 250 hogs. Ten log houses have been built this season, making eighty in all, an increase of seventy in two years.
      Their annuities are large and permanent. The former strong opposition of the Indians to education has been nearly overcome, and a flourishing boarding-school, with 43 pupils, has been sustained throughout the year.
      During the winter and spring whooping-cough and pneumonia prevailed and have proved so fatal as nearly to decimate the tribe.

DAKOTA.

      DEVIL'S LAKE AGENCY. – The Sissiton and Wahpeton Sioux, at Devil's Lake, in the northeastern part of Dakota, number 1,047, of whom 750 are permanent residents at the agency.
      The reservation contains 230,400 acres of valuable land, 20,000 being wooded. Limestone is obtained from the hills and the ravines form good hay-meadows. Eighty families, representing nearly 300 persons, are engaged in agriculture, and have cultivated during the year 135 acres. An experiment on a small scale has proved the practicability of raising wheat on this reservation. Of the 60 head of cattle issued to individual Indians last year, but four have died, two from want of care and two by accident. Forty thousand feet of lumber have been sawed. Nineteen log-houses, 18 feet square, have been built, mostly by Indian labor; making the whole number of houses occupied by them 84. A hopeful indication is the growing desire to build their houses at some distance from each other, which it was impossible to induce them to do so long as they were in danger of raids by hostile Sioux, and especially so long as they adhered to the old and pernicious custom of having all things in common. Within two years the number of those wearing citizen's clothing has increased from 50 men to 152 men and 25 women, besides many boys and girls.


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There seems to be a movement among the wild "Cut-Head" Sioux to remove to and settle upon this reservation. The few already there are among the most industrious and frugal laborers.
      In regard to the results of the year's labor their agent reports:

      It is estimated that there will be harvested this fall 2,000 bushels corn, 2,500 bushels potatoes, 25 bushels beans, and about 100 bushels wheat. The yield would have been far greater but for the devastation caused by grasshoppers. There have been 800 rods of fence constructed during the year, by the Indians, and much other labor performed beside field-work, in cutting and hauling fire-wood, hay for the animals, and in saving expense to the Government by transporting the supplies with their own teams, from the nearest point on the Northern Pacific Railroad, a distance of about eighty miles. The agency-house, a frame building 24 by 28 feet, is now in course of erection; most of the material is also manufactured here. The whole will, I hope, be completed this season.
      A kiln of bricks will be finished in two days, when we will have 40,000 bricks for making chimneys, one for each Indian house, if possible, to give proper ventilation.
      The manual labor school-house commenced last year is finished and ready for occupaDcy. It is 40 by 60 feet, two stories high, of brick manufactured on the ground, as well as the lime with which it is well plastered, and presents a handsome appearance.
      The school will be opened on the arrival of teachers from a community of the Sisters of Charity with whom satisfactory arrangements have been closed, they receiving nothing but the actual expense for their support. A permanent mission for religious education will be opened at the same time, and a church-building will be completed this fall.

      In regard to the prosperous condition of these Indians, Inspector Kemble reports:

      It gives me much pleasure to testify to the gratifying progress which the Indians are making on this reservation, not only in house-building and farming, but in cleanliness and comfort in their several homes. Their planted fields are still small, and there is not much variety in the products of their farms, corn, potatoes, and squashes being the staples. But they are trying wheat, and notwithstanding the shortness of the season and the plague of grasshoppers, it is claimed that it can be successfully cultivated. The soil of the greater part of the reservation is very rich, and the working Indians are much encouraged by the results of the past two years' industry. I saw Indians living in good log-houses reared by their own hands, on well-scrubbed floors, eating from clean white crockery laid on neat tables, who years ago were wild men in their blankets, wanderers over the prairies or dwellers in dirty teepees. The transformation seemed incredible, and certainly much credit is due the agent and his assistants for the good management which has brought about such changes.

      SISSITON AGENCY. – The Sissiton and Wahpeton band of Sioux, on Lake Traverse Reservation, on the eastern boundary of Dakota, now number 1,677, an increase of 137 over the number reported last year. This increase is mainly due to the removal thither of the Wabey band of Sioux, who have hitherto resisted all efforts to induce them to give up their wandering life. The death of their chief, Eagle Feather, left them without a leader, and they have seemed glad to select farms and begin a life of civilized labor. A number Of Indian scouts recently discharged from the United States service on the frontier have also come to settle vith these Indians, to whom they are related.
      An attempted insurrection, led by the head chief and several headmen, was promptly put down by the agent; the oxen, wagons, &c., seized were returned to their owners; two of the ringleaders were delivered up to him for punishment and were imprisoned in Fort Wadsworth for nearly a month and a half, and all participants in the affair were for one month deprived of certain rights and privileges to which they would otherwise have been entitled. With this exception the conduct of these Indians has been exemplary throughout the year in industry, loyalty, and friendship toward the Government and the white people, and in hearty co-operation with the present policy of promoting their civilization.
      The reservation contains 918,353 acres, of which two-thirds are adapted


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to grazing; most of the rest is tillable, except 6,000 acres wooded, and 12,000 useless. The Indians have broken 191 and planted 840 acres, an increase of 340 acres over last year. The crops promised finely, especially their 206 acres of wheat, but the grasshoppers took nearly everything.
      Two years ago there were on this reservation 26 houses occupied by Indians. They have now 209 houses and 256 log stables; 105 of the stables and 68 houses have been built by themselves during the year. They have also dug 65 cellars, made 903 rods of fencing, and cut 3,000 tons of hay. They own 383 head of horses, 332 cattle, 179 swine, 1,804 chickens, and 176 turkeys. All of the men and most of the women wear citizens' dress. There are four district day-schools and one manual-labor boarding school. These have been taught by 9 teachers, with an attendance of 95 pupils, in most cases with gratifying results. The 18 scholars in the girls' and the 15 in the boys' department of the boarding-school, despite the want of proper accommodations, have made such commendable progress in every way as to justify the expectation that on the early completion of the new school-building, with accommodations for 60 pupils, the educational progress already witnessed upon this reservation will be largely accelerated.
      The following is taken from the annual report of their agent:

      The Sabbath is generally observed by rest from labor and traveling and by attendance on divine services. Very little if any spirituous liquors have been introduced or used during the year on this reservation. We show no quarters to the liquor dealers, excepting it may be a small stone building erected at this agency last autumn for such lawless and defiant men.
      Polygamy and bigamy are fast passing away, and we trust that all such old practices are destined soon to be numbered among the things and customs of the past. Chieftainships and warriors' honors are alike failing to command even the respect of the intelligent, working, and progressive Indians and half-breeds here, and no unreasonable tribute can be laid upon them for the maintenance and support of any old claims of this kind.
      There are six Presbyterian churches organized on this reservation, with a membership of 410, and a native pastor for each church. Public religious services are held regularly in all these churches, besides at several out-stations. I am happy to testify to the general consistency of the members of the churches, their devotion to their religious services, and their self-denials, and liberal support of the means of grace, which they have voluntarily assumed. Also to the fidelity and devotion of the native pastors to the work of their calling, and their uniform fidelity to the United States Government in relation to the education and material advancement of this people.

      Sioux at Flandreau. – The Flandreau Sioux are located on the headwaters of the Big Sioux River, a fertile country, but subject to drought and grasshoppers and scantily wooded. In March, 1869, twenty-five families of the Santee Sioux, including four of the chiefs who signed the old treaty, convinced that they could make more rapid advancement in civilization as citizens, voluntarily dissolved their connection with the tribe and came to this place, selected homesteads of 160 acres each, paid the fees, and with nothing but their bands began life in earnest. Nearly all were members of the Presbyterian Church. They endured great hardships and some of their best men perished in snow-storms, but they persevered and were joined by others, who have also taken homesteads, until they have increased to 75 families, containing 312 persons. A year ago the Government came to their assistance with oxen, wagons, plOw, and smaller farming implements for 36 families. The Presbyterians have built them a church and the Government has bought a school-house and pays the teacher. As the result of the four years' experiment they all live in houses built by themselves – twenty during the year; have 370 acres under cultivation, and own 70 horses and 94 head Of cattle. One hundred and nineteen read the Sioux language fluently.


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The school has been irregularly attended by 41 pupils, the irregularity mainly owing to the distance of many from the school-house. All attend church, the membership of which is 135. They have harvested 472 bushels of wheat, 440 bushels of corn, 900 bushels of potatoes, and some turnips and beans, but about four-fifths of their crops were ruined by grasshoppers, and many families look forward to a winter of destitution and hunger. Entire good-will exists between these Indians and the white settlers around them.
      This experiment of individual enterprise and self-reliance is an interesting one, showing the true line of effort for civilization. Fortunately a provision in the treaty of 1868 with the Sioux Nations allows any member of that nation to follow the course which these Flandreaus have taken, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that, if the same privilege can be granted by proper legislation to other Indian tribes much more favorably situated for such individual enterprise, many will avail themselves of it, and strike out for themselves. Such legislation, however, should not require the Indian on leaving his tribe to forfeit at once all Governwent aid at a point where he needs it most, and is best prepared to make a wise use of it.
      YANKTON AGENCY. – The Yankton Sioux have a reservation of 400,000 acres in the south part of Dakota, fifty miles from Yankton. They number 2,000, about one-half of whom live in houses, and one-fourth have adopted civilized dress.
      These Indians for several years past have been entirely friendly, and are thoroughly committed to civilization. They have given up the hunt, and are quite generally engaged in agriculture. The soil is good, but as they are in a region subject to drought, severe, storms, and grasshoppers, their crops are very uncertain, and they are and will continue to be largely dependent for support on rations furnished by the Government. Twelve hundred acres were planted by them this year, (an increase of 250 per cent. since 1872,) in addition to the agency farm of 1,000 acres, mostly to corn, from which, owing to drought and grasshoppers, only 2,000 bushels will be harvested. A few were persuaded to sow wheat, but the failure of this their first crop is discouraging. Their main outlook for self-support is in stock-raising, for which the reservation is better adapted, and to which special attention has been given in the last two years. There are now on the reservation 1,500 ponies, 100 mules, 250 head of cattle, and 150 hogs, the individual property of the Indians, and 800 sheep still in the care of the agency. All have been properly used and well taken care of. Two thousand tons of hay have been put up this season.
      In connection with sheep-raising, the art of weaving cloth on handlooms has been introduced, in regard to which the agent reports:

      I have started a weaving-room where I constantly employ from six to eight Indian women in weaving. The cloth made is of a very good quality, and will serve the Indians much better than what is bought for them. As these Indians have now a flock of some 800 sheep, it will not be long ere the clothing for the nation can be produced and manufactured at home. I would recommend that this pursuit be encouraged as much as possible, even though, at first, the cloth could be purchased at a less price, as it will, in time, prove of great importance, and for the time being is a civilizing power of no small merit.

      The manufacture of willow baskets has been commenced and promises to be a success. Thirty-five Indian houses have been built during the year, making a total of 250 – an increase of 162 in three years; 600,000 feet lumber have been sawed, and 1,500 cords wood cut and sold to the steamboats. A large stone building for a boys' boarding-school, with accommodations for the teachers and missionaries, has been erected by


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the missionary bishop of the Episcopal Church. There are also a girls' boarding-school attached to the chapel, and three day-schools, supported by this denomination. Two other day-schools are maintained by the Presbyterians. In all these, over 200 pupils have been taught.
      There are five church buildings and six churches, with a membership of 525.
      In regard to apprentices and the conduct of the Indians, their agent reports:

      I have, during the year, employed apprentices in all the shops – blacksmith, tinsmith, carpenter, and grist-mill. These are mostly half-breeds. I believe, however, the full Indian will do as well. I have, also, a number of young Indians employed as farm-laborers. As these continue steadily to labor year after year, some of them having now continued in the employ of the Government for the last six or seven years, they become more and more skillful. I can now intrust to these men my breaking-teams, stirring-plows, mowers, and hay-rakes. These men are now capable farm-hands, and, with the superintendent farmer, are able to conduct the entire farm-work of the agency.
      The record of the Indians under my charge during the past year is, as usual, good, so far as their peaceable conduct goes. None to my knowledge have gone out on war parties; no disturbance among themselves; no depredations on their white neighbors. They have remained at home, quietly doing their work. There is no jail, no law except the treaty and the agent's word, yet we have no quarrels, no fighting, and, with one or two exceptions, there has not been a single case of drunkenness during the last year. This I consider quite remarkable, when we take into consideration the fact that the reservation is surrounded by ranches where liquors of all kinds can be obtained. The improvements going on among them are spoken of by all who pass through the reservation. If they continue in the future to improve as fast as they have in the last two years, they will soon be able to take care of themselves.

      The remaining bands of Sioux in Dakota under five agencies have a common reservation of 25,964,800 acres, bounded by the forty-sixth parallel, the Missouri River, and the State lines of Nebraska, Wyoming, and Dakota.
      STANDING ROCK AGENCY. – The Upper and Lower Yanctonnais, to the number of 1,406 and 2,607, respectively, with 1,556 Uncpapas and 871 Blackfeet, are located on the Missouri River, about one hundred miles nearly due south from Bismarck, to which place the agency was removed last year from Grand River.
      Their conduct during the year has been orderly, and they have steadily declined all invitations of the "hostiles" to join them. The troops were removed from the agency in July. These Indians are dependent on Government for subsistence and are entirely opposed to labor. The Indian women have planted about 200 acres, broken by the Government, this year in corn and vegetables, but owing to grasshoppers and drought, will harvest but 1,280 bushels of corn. There have been built during the year one agent's, one physician's, one council and three store houses; one blacksmith and one carpenter shop; one stable, two corrals, employés' quarters, and six houses for Indians, with which they are much pleased. Thirty wagons have been issued. They have been induced to bury their dead instead of placing them. on scaffolds according to their old custom.
      The experiment of furnishing oxen and cows to these Indians was undertaken, on the earnest recommendation of their agent, at too early a stage in their civilization. The care of those not turned over to the Indians has been an expense to the Government, and those received by them have not always escaped the immediate requirements for fresh beef.
      CHEYENNE RIVER AGENCY. – The Two-Kettle, Minneconjou, Sans Arc, and Blackfeet bands of Sioux, numbering in all 4,982, have an agency on the west side of the Missouri, near the mouth of Cheyenne River;


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230 families are now living in houses, and, notwithstanding the destruction of their crops last year, have cultivated 600 acres, from which they have received an abundant yield in corn and vegetables; 200 acres have been broken, and 40 Indian houses are in process of erection for others who have lately given up their nomadic life, and a growing interest in civilized life and occupation is manifested, though the poor quality of the soil and their exposure to grasshopper raids would discourage most white settlers. They own large herds of ponies, besides 100 mules and 200 head of cattle. But few have as yet been induced to give up the blanket. The washing away of its banks by the Missouri River has necessitated the removal of many of the agency buildings to a safer locality. Intemperance is as yet almost entirely unknown at this agency.
      The expedition to the Black Hills is reported by Agent Bingham as having "done visible harm in causing dissatisfaction and discontent even among those who have hitherto been most friendly and appreciative."
      A boarding-school and two day-schbools have been sustained mainly by benevolent contributions, with an attendance of 139 pupils, of whom 72 have learned to read during the year. Two of the seven teachers are Indians. This is the showing of three years' earnest effort for civilization at a great disadvantage, and in many respects among those previously considered hopelessly intractable.
      CROW CREEK AGENCY. – This includes the Lower Yanctonais and Lower Brulé Sioux.
      The Lower Yanctonais are located on the east side of the Missouri River, on Crow Creek. They number by actual count 1,200. Their uniformly good behavior and improvement in industry during the year are commendable. Eighteen months ago there was not an Indian house on the reservation. There are now one hundred log houses, mostly built by Indian labor. They have cultivated 200 acres of land, the principal crop being 1,500 bushels of corn; 100 acres were plowed and fenced, as well as fenced, by the Indians themselves, being with few exceptions their first plowing and fencing. They have also cut 3,000 cords of wood. The experiment of stock-raising among them has been so far successful. Their agent writes:

      Last November a yoke of oxen and a cow were issued to the head of each family that had procured hay for the same. Thirty families were provided with stock in this manner. They have taken much pride in their stock, and in no case have they killed an animal that has been issued to them as individual property. I am still issuing to families on the same plan, and I see no reason why these Indians should not within a reasonable time become good stock-growers, the country being well adapted to grazing, and but poorly adapted to agriculture.

      These Indians, together with the Brulés, own 3,275 horses and 35 mules; 100,000 feet of lumber have been sawed in the mill during the season.
      A small school of six boarding and nine day scholars has been kept up at the agency, and during the winter a branch school was opened in camp seven miles below. It is proposed the coming winter to open a similar school in camp seven miles above.
      The Lower Brulé Sioux, numbering 1,800, are on the west side of the Missouri, ten miles below the Yanctonais. They have made little advancement during the year. They, have objected to the issue of rations by weight and have challenged the roll; but by the presence of the military good order has been preserved. One hundred acres were plowed for them by the agent, which they carelessly planted in corn, and afterward neglected, so that the crop will prove an entire failure.


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      A war-party of these Brulés, in March last, stole five horses from farmers near, but on the demand of the agent they were given up and restored to their owners. Shortly after another raiding party killed 15 head of cattle belonging to farmers on the Niobrara. Through the prompt action of the agent they afterward brought to him an equal number of horses for indemnity, and express willingness to restore the fall value of the cattle when the owners shall present their claims and proofs of actual loss.
      It is quite important that these Indians should be moved to the mouth of White River, and a separate agency established for them; 3,000 could easily be gathered there, half of whom are now marauding and lawless bands. Respecting their removal inspector Bevier reports:

      Agent Livingston has recommended that this branch agency be changed into a separate and independent agency, and I would respectfully add my approval of the same. There are 1,800 Brulés, enough to occupy the attention of one agent and to make a respectable-sized agency. They do not harmonize well with the Yanctonais. It is always more or less difficult, and at times impossible, to cross the river to get to them. The expense of an independent agency over the present branch agency would be scarcely perceptible, and but few additional buildiugs would be required.

      RED CLOUD AGENCY. – This agency is located on White River, to which it was removed in August, 1873, not without much opposition from Red Cloud, the chief of the 0galallas. The present location gives good water and farming-lands, with timber and hay from ten to fifteen miles distant; but the survey of the line ot the northern boundary of Nebraska, recently run, shows that it was located in Nebraska, instead of upon the permanent reservation of the Sioux in Dakota.
      Great difficulty has been experienced hitherto in procuring a reliable census of Indians who belong to this agency. Until the agent was supported by a military force the Indians had been able to refuse to allow him to count them, and still to demand and take their rations; but under the protection of a military force, now stationed at Red Cloud, the agent has accomplished the count, and enumerates 9,807, mainly Ogalalla Sioux, now at this agency, (exclusive of over 1,000 of the wildest, who fled to the north rather than submit to the process of a count,) and 2,294 Northern Arapahos and Cheyennes.
      The conduct of the Indians daring the year is reported by their agent as follows:

      The Indians were much dissatisfied on account of an alleged promise of guns and horses made them on condition that they would remove the agency to its present location. They were disposed to be insolent and unreasonable, placing limits to the range of travel of the agent and employés. Toward the last of September, when the annuity goods were to be distributed, a large number of Indians from the northern tribes of Minneconjou, Sans Arc, Uucpapa, and Oncpapa bands of Sioux, who have never acceded to the treaty of 1868, and are therefore termed hostile, came into the agency, increasing the number to be fed to more than double that for whom supplies had been provided. Many of these people had never been to an agency before, and were exceedingly vicious and insolent. They made unreasonable demands for food, and supplemented their demands with threats. They resisted every effort to count them. On one occasion, when attempting to count their lodges, I was arrested by some three hundred of these wild fellows, and returned to the agency for trial. But of the older residents of the agency, about seven hundred, armed and mounted, came to my relief and protected me. Unable to induce them to comply with the orders of the Government for a census to be taken, I appealed to those who had lived long enough at the agency to understand the necessity of a compliance with these orders, and about the 1st of February they declared in favor of yielding to my direction in all matters pertaining to the business of the agency. This exasperated the hostiles, and immediately they broke up into small war-parties, going off in all directions, and attacking all parties who were not strong enough to oppose them. On the 8th of February I went to Whetstone agency for the purpose of consulting Agent Howard in regard to the propriety of calling for troops. That night about 2 o'clock, the watchman having fallen asleep, a Minneconjou Indian, belonging to the band of "Lone Horn," of the


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north, scaled the stockade, and calling my clerk, Frank D. Appleton, to the door, shot and killed him. The Indian escaped. Agent Howard called for troops, and, as my employés were much alarmed, I joined in the request. On the arrival of the troops there was much excitement. All of the hostile and many of the resident Indians left the agency for the north. The excitement, however, soon subsided, and I commenced a registration of the people, which they had previously consented to. Since this has been accomplished there has been little or no difficulty, as they readily comply with almost any request I make. During the summer those previously living at the agency have returned.

      After sending messengers through the Powder River and Big Horn country, Red Cloud became convinced that there was not enough game to last through a war, and at a general council it was resolved to protect any who wished to farm. Twenty-five persons expressed their desire to commence, and thirty acres were broken for and planted by them, but too late in the season for their crops to mature. Notwithstanding, the agent has greater demands for assistance in farming than he has means at his disposal to meet, and many Indians are asking for houses. The country, however, is better adapted for grazing. The Indians have over 10,000 horses, of inferior stock, which might be greatly improved, and they would soon learn to raise cattle.
      During the year there have been built a stockade 200 by 400 feet, a warehouse, a barn, three offices, four rooms for employés' quarters, a mess-house, and a house for the agent; the saw-mill has been set up and 150,000 feet of lumber have been sawed; a dam has been constructed, and a mile and a half of irrigation-ditch made. No educational or missionary work has ever been undertaken. Preparations are now being made for the building of a school-bouse and opening of a school.
      Even among those wild tribes an armed Indian police has been found to be a reliable and efficient aid to the agent in maintaining discipline. He reports:

      Sitting Bull is an Ogalalla soldier, a nephew of Little Wound, noted among the Indians for his personal courage, and, during the late war, he was a bitter enemy of the whites. Since the treaty was made he has been friendly, and since I have been at the agency he has been a warm friend. I have made him the leader of the soldiers, whom I have armed by permission of the Department. It is my opinion that the number of Indian soldiers could be increased not only with safety, but with benefit to the Indians and the agent. If I could be perwitted to arm and pay fifty or a hundred of such men as I could select, I would be willing to trust the safety of the agency and my own life to their care. They have repeatedly shown their fidelity to the Government and their friendship for me. Their action in regard to the late order requiring them to be counted I consider the crucial test of their sincerity, and but for their efforts I should have been unable to have carried out the order.

      A delegation of Cheyennes and Arapahos visited Washington in November, 1873, to consult in regard to their removal to join the Southern Arapahos and Cheyennes in the Indian Territory. This removal was insisted upon by the Department, and was strongly opposed by the Indians, who have, however, since consented, and the leading chiefs have signed an agreement to remove thither whenever the Government is prepared to receive them; but pending the disturbances in the Indian Territory by hostile Cheyennes, and their subjugation by the military, it has not been deemed advisable to undertake such removal.
      SPOTTED TAIL AGENCY. – This agency has been removed during the year twelve miles, to a location selected by a special commission, which, like that of Red Cloud, is found to be outside of the Sioux reservation, ten miles south of the Nebraska line. The commission gave as their reason for selecting this location their inability to find on the reservation a tract of country with wood and water suitable for tillage or pasturage.
      The Brulé Sioux number 7,000. But little has been done for them, beyond the drawing them around their agency by the issue of regular


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rations. No attempt at farming has been made. Serious disturbances were feared during the winter by the presence of large numbers of well-armed and mounted Minneconjoux with Uncpapas, Sans Arcs, and Two Kettles, who attacked the agency herders, stole cattle, demanded rations, threatened the agent, and made other hostile demonstrations, and troops were furnished the agency for protection. To the presence of these troops the Brulés made no opposition, and great credit is due them for their uniform good behavior, notwithstanding the example and influence of their marauding visitors. Practically, nothing has been accomplished at either Red Cloud or Spotted Tail agencies in civilization itself; but the control and confidence already gained, their attraction to, and comparatively permanent abode around an agency, and their manifest unreadiness to join in hostilities against the Government, are necessary steps preparatory to any work of civilization. This has been accomplished solely by issues of beef, blankets, coffee, and sugar.
      PONCA AGENCY. – The Poncas, numbering 730, have a reservation of 96,000 acres in the southeastern part of the Territory, near the junction of the Missouri and Niobrara Rivers. They are constantly exposed to raids from hostile Sioux, and are gathered for mutual protection into three villages not over ten miles apart. A detachment of about twenty soldiers, for whom comfortable quarters have been built this season, is stationed at the agency.
      But few improvements have been undertaken, owing to the prospect of a removal of the Poncas to some place where they will be able, unmolested by Sioux, to carry on farming operations. They have cultivated, during the past season, 300 acres for themselves, in addition to the 100 acres of the agency farm; but the large crop of wheat and corn which they hoped to harvest was first damaged by drought and then destroyed by grasshoppers.
      The Poncas are an inoffensive, agriculturally disposed people. Nearly all live in houses, of which 22 have been built during the year. They own, individually, over a hundred head of cattle and fifty wagons; are well supplied with farming implements, and need only an opportunity to work in safety with a reasonable prospect of a yearly harvest, to soon become self-supporting. Their condition and prospects have materially improved by the enforcement of the labor system among them during the past year. Instead of getting their rations and annuity money and goods, as heretofore, on demand, each family has had a ledger-account with the agent and has received Government aid only in return for labor performed.
      The Poncas and Omahas speak the same language, and the question of the removal of the Poncas to the Omaha reservation in Nebraska is now pending. Both tribes desire it. Such a consolidation is very desirable, both on account of economy in administration and for the benefit of the Indians, and there is nothing lacking for its consummation except an appropriation of funds for the purchase of a sufficient tract of land from the Omahas and for the necessary expense of the removal and establishment of the Poncas.
      If it were possible to intercept and punish the small bands of Sioux as they pass the military posts coming from the upper agencies, it is believed that one or two severe chastisements by the military would be much more effectual in protecting the Poncas than any detachment stationed on their reservation. This hostility of the Sioux has its fouudation in what they regard an act of bad faith on the part of the Government, in selling a part of their reserve to the Poncas. If the Poncas are removed, their reserve in Dakota will equitably revert to the Sioux,


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and can be used to good advantage in the settlement of some of the bauds who are preparing to begin an agricultural life.
      FORT BERTHOLD AGENCY. – The Arickarees, numbering 975, the Gros Ventres, numbering 620, and the Mandans, numbering 420, have a reservation containing 8,320,000 acres of unproductive soil, very scantily wooded, in Northwestern Dakota, including a part of Montana. They subsist chiefly by hunting and rations from Government, though more than half of them have small gardens during the summer, near the agency, cultivated by the women. They have for many years been friendly to the whites, and the Rees have been quite extensively enlisted as scouts.
      In regard to the two important obstacles in the way of their civilization their agent writes:

The unfriendliness of this climate is a serious difficulty against which we must contend; its long and exceedingly cold winters, its hot, debilitating summers, its poor water and high winds, its dust and drought, its frosts and floods, its grasshoppers and worms, render agriculture very laborious and uncertain. This season the grasshoppers have entirely destroyed our oats and wheat, about 60 acres of each, while the drought has kept our potatoes down to half a crop and the corn to about a third of a full yield. The constant danger of attacks from the Sioux is another serious hinderance to civilizing efforts. On the 13th of June last a small party of Sioux fired upon our village, and, by retreating, drew these Indians into an ambuscade, where several hundred concealed Sioux attacked, killing and horribly mutilating five Rees and one Mandan. This calamity threw these people into such a state of gloom and sullen anger that it was almost impossible to keep them from taking the war-path.

      During the year a delegation of the Arickarees, with their agent, made a visit of exploration to the Indian Territory, with a view to their removal thither. Though pleased with the country, their fear that it would be too warm, their dread of the long journey, and, most of all, their attachment to the place of their birth and the homes of their dead, make them prefer to remain where they are, and, as they express it, "work harder and have less." It is hoped that the Mandans and Gros Ventres may, before long, be induced to join the Crows in Judith Basin, as they speak the same language and are very much the same people.
      Notwithstanding discouragements these Indians have made marked improvement during the year in the cultivation of 1,200 acres. Forty men have been converted to the labor system, and are working steadily, while a large amount of work has been performed by others irregularly, and a growing disposition to labor is manifest in all. For the first time they have put up for sale, besides that needed by their ponies, 100 tons of hay, procured with great labor from small scattered meadows, and have cut and hauled 400 cords of wood, which could be gathered only in small amounts at distances of from three to seven miles from the agency. Four or five Indians have opened wood-yards at various points along the Missouri River, and propose to furnish all the wood needed by the steamboats next season. They now propose to dig 75 tons of coal to be hauled to the agency, a distance of eight miles, by their ponies and the agency cattle; this service heretofore having been performed by contract at large expense to the Government. The dirt lodges are giving way to comfortable log houses, of which 50 have been built within ten mouths. The saw and grist mill has been repaired and 50,000 feet of lumber sawed. Their first school has had an average attendance of 45 pupils. Many deaths among the children have occurred from whooping-cough but confidence in the "white man's medicines" is rapidly increasing. It is due to the truth of history to state, that the amelioration of the condition and prospects of these Indians has been brought about by a change of administration of agency affairs; and yet it will be impossible for the Government under any administration


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to do for these Indians all that they deserve, while they remain in their present locality. They have seen the Sioux well fed.on the beef, coffee, and sugar of the Government to which. they were hostile, and yet, though often themselves on short rations, and seeing their wives and children pinched with hunger and cold, have steadily withstood all efforts of the Sioux to swerve them from their unflinching loyalty to the Government. Every possible effort will be made to induce these Indians to remove to another section of Dakota or Montana; and, meanwhile, there should be no hesitation in providing fully for their wants by deficiency appropriations whenever their crops fail.
      BLACKFEET AGENCY. – The Blackfeet, Bloods, and Piegans, numbering, respectively, 1,500, 1,500, and 2,450, are on a reservation estimated to contain 31,250 square miles, set aside by Executive order in 1873, and established by Congress at its last session for them, with the Gros Ventres, Assinnaboines and Mountain Crows in common, bounded by the Missouri, Sun, and Marias Rivers, and by the State line of Dakota. By this action a large tract, formerly roamed over by these Indians, has been surrendered for settlement, but this being done without their knowledge, is declared by them to be a great hardship, depriving them of some of their best hunting along the Teton.
      The Blackfeet never, and the Bloods seldom. visit the agency, and most of the, time range north of the British line, coming in contact with lawless white men, whose vices and whisky are fast increasing their poverty and diminishing their numbers. The Piegans frequently visit the agency, draw rations, are loyal, and, except when intoxicated, peaceable. Game is plentiful, and, as yet, only two Indians have attempted farming. They planted an acre each this year, which the grasshoppers harvested. For two years past the agency crops have been nearly all destroyed by this cause.
      A day-school has been opened for the first time, attended by 26 pupils, and, considering that the children spend all the time out of school in the wigwams has met with very encouraging success. Many of the Piegans are anxious to have their children educated, and a boarding-school is greatly needed.
      Two whisky-traders were shot by a young Piegan in April last, in defense of his father's life. Another man was brutally murdered in March by a party of thirteen northern Blackfeet, whom the military were unable to arrest and punish. The sale of whisky to these Indians and illicit trading on the reservation, by the employment of special detectives, has been somewhat lessened. One conviction and imprisonment has been effected.
      In May a treaty of peace was entered into between the Piegans and Gros Ventres and Assinnaboines, which has thus far been faithfully observed. These Indians are properly classed with those at Fort Peck and Fort Belknap in respect to civilization.
      CROW AGENCY. – The Mountain and River Crows number respectively 3,000 and 1,200. The River Crows have a reservation of about six and one-fourth million acres between the Yellowstone and the north line of Wyoming Territory. They are closely united by intermarriage and speak the same language. They are the hereditary enemies of the Sioux, but have always been firm friends of the whites. Their agreement, obtained last year through a special commission, to exchange their present reservation for the Judith Basin, has not been ratified by Congress. The present location of the Crow agency is wholly unsuitable tor any effort in civilization. Whenever funds can be secured sufficient for the removal of the agency farther down the Yellowstone River to a


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country adapted to agriculture and pasturage, it is believed that it will not be difficult to take the first steps in bringing the Crows to self-support. Their loyalty to the Government and hostility to the Sioux has served as a defense to the settlers on the west of them, and for this service they deserve considerate treatment.
      The River Crows belonging to this agency are unwilling as yet to remove from their haunts with other Indians along the Missouri River where facilities for drunkenness and lewdness are more attractive than any inducements the Government has yet been able to make.
      FORT PECK AGENCY. – The Assinaboines, to the number of 1,998, with 5,309 Sioux of the Santee, Sissiton, Yanctonais, Uncpapa, and Uncpatina bands, have an agency on the north bank of the Missouri River, one hundred and fifty miles by land west of Fort Buford. Nothing in the way of farming, education, or missionary work has been attempted. The Assinaboines and Santee and Sisseton Sioux have lately expressed a desire to open farms, and cattle and farming implements to a small extent have been provided, ready to begin work early next spring, although the sterility of the soil, except in a few localities, is very discouraging.
      The remaining bands, especially the Uncpapas, two years ago were hostiles, constantly on the war-path. They are still wild Indians, difficult to control, partly on account of their proximity to Sitting Bull's camp of hostile Indians on the Yellowstone, some of whom are their relatives and former associates; yet the agent reports that no depredations by any of his Indians. have been committed during the year. Game is abundant in their vicinity, and the issue of rations has been sufficient to heep these Indians, with the exception of the Uncpapas, quietly upon their reservation. Six Indian houses have been built. As will be seen, these Indians are properly classed among those whose only relation to the Government is that of friendship based on the issue of rations, and whose prospect of civilization is far from immediate.
      FORT BELKNAP AGENCY. – A special agency for 960 Gros Ventres and 1,700 Upper Assinaboines was established in July, 1873, by Executive order, at Fort Belknap, which had formerly been a trading-post for a portion of the Indians belonging to the Milk River, now known as Fort Peck, agency. Bands of Lower Assinaboines and of Northern Crees from British America, to the number of 1,000, are often camped with the Indians of this agency. Game is abundant, and no farming operations have been undertaken. They have no schools nor missionaries. Both tribes are friendly to the Government, and the Assinaboines are at peace with all the surrounding tribes, but beyond this they have taken no steps toward civilization.
      FLATHEAD AGENCY. – The Flatheads, Pend d'Oreilles, and Kootenays, numbering respectively 1,026, 471, and 332, have a reservation of 1,433,000 acres in the fertile Jocko Valley of Northwestern Montana.
      Most of the Flatbeads are still in the Bitter-Root Valley, although the act of Congress of June 5, 1872, provided for the opening of those lands to settlement, and for the removal of the Indians to the Jocko, or the patenting, to such heads of families as should choose to sever their tribal relations, of 160 acres each. Five families, including the head chief, have removed. The remainder seem equally averse to either citizenship or removal.
      The Indians in this agency are not disinclined to agriculture, and a few have thrifty farms, but have not yet been sufficiently supplied with agricultural implements. Of these, the Kootenays especially are so destitute as to be compelled to resort to hunting for subsistence. The


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substitution of plows and harness for blankets, in their last anuuity distribution, gave great satisfaction. These Indians have cultivated, this season, 1,500 acres, of which 200 have been broken by themselves, and have raised 10,000-bushels wheat, 4,000 bushels oats, 8,000 bushels potatoes, and have cut 500 tons of hay. They own 2,500 horses, 1,800 head of cattle, and 950 hogs; 115 houses are occupied by them, of which 29 have been built during the year; 2,500 acres are surrounded by fence. In three years the amount of land cultivated and the crops raised have more than trebled, and the number of cattle and hogs owned have more than doubled.
      A boarding-school of 30 girls, and a day-school with an average attendance of 48 boys, are reported.
      The only serions obstacle to a much larger improvement on the part of these Indians has been the disagreement between the fathers of the Roman Catholic Church and the Indian agent. The fathers have maintained, and probably with reason and truth, that the agency is improperly located upon a rocky and sterile portion of the reservation which affords no inducement for agriculture, to which they cannot and will not invite any of the Catholic Indians under their influence in the Bitter-Root Valley to remove; but, on the contrary, they declare themselves ready and willing enough, if the Indians can be properly located on their reservation, to encourage and induce them to remove thither. It is believed that this question is in a fair way of settlement, and that hereafter harmony will be secured and the desired removal accomplished.
      LEMHI AGENCY. – The mixed bands of Bannacks, Shoshones, and Sheepeaters, to the number of 1,000, many years ago formed a confederacy, separated themselves from other tribes, and made the Lemhi Valley, in Eastern Idaho, their rallying ground, where they subsisted chiefly on salmon and mountain-sheep, occasionally venturing after buffalo into the hunting-grounds of the Sioux and Crows, who often carried off their stock and inflicted upon them great hardships.
      Five years ago a special agent was sent out by the Government, who found them almost entirely destitute of lodges, tents, or clothing. On the opening of an agency farm, the Indians gathered together and made a solemn promise of friendship to the whites, which, although repeatedly urged by hostile Indians to break, they have kept inviolate. An agency farm of 115 acres is worked by Indians who have been substituted for white employés. There have been raised this year 310 bushels of wheat, 540 bushels of oats, 1,500 bushels of potatoes, 900 bushels of turnips, and 152 bushels of pease. Owing to the meager appropriations, the Indians have been obliged to resort to hunting to sustain life, and have therefore been unable to undertake farming for themselves individually. If they can be subsisted while opening farms, they will soon become an agricultural people. They are anxious for homes, and are ready to adopt citizen's dress.
      A school-house has been built, and a day-school was opened in March last. The Indians seem interested in the education of their children, but the attendance has been small, owing partly to the disturbing effect of the official order communicated to them in May last requiring their removal to the Fort Hall reservation. To this removal they are utterly adverse, and will rather forfeit all aid from the Government and depend for subsistence entirely upon huuting. They claim that this is their country, and they probably can be provided for with as little expense, and be brought to civilization more rapidly, if allowed to remain where they now are than if forced to submit to a removal.


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