NADP Homepage
  Back to Pages 3-22
  Forward to Pages 44-67

Smith to Secretary of the Interior, 1 November 1872, in United States, Office of Indian Affairs, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary for the Year 1872 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872), 22-44, NADP Document R872001B.
[Page 22]

belong, or to some place in the Indian territory south of Kansas. For various reasons their removal has not yet been undertaken. Indeed, while this may be found practicable, I doubt whether it can be thoroughly accomplished without additional and severe legislation on the part of Congress, as the Indians are attached to the country, and express great repugnance to their contemplated removal from it. On this account, and for the reason that they cannot be supposed to feel much interest in those from whom they have been so long separated, and by whom they might not be heartily welcomed, it is probable that those who should be removed against their will would return to their old haunts, and do the same as often as they should be removed therefrom. Such has been the case heretofore, not only with these, but with other Indians.

MINNESOTA.

      The Indians residing within the limits of Minnesota, as in the case of those of the same name living in Wisconsin, heretofore noticed, constitute a portion of the Ojibway or Chippewa nation, and comprise the following bands: Mississippi, Pillager, Winnebagoshish, Pembina, Red Lake, Boise Forte, Fond du Lac, and Grand Portage. The last three bands, being attached to the agency for the Chippewas of Lake Superior, have been treated of in connection with the Indians of Wisconsin. The five first-named bands number in the aggregate about six thousand four hundred and fifty-five souls, and occupy, or rather it is intended they shall ultimately occupy, ample reservations in the central and northern portion of the State, known as the White Earth, Leech Lake, and Red Lake reservations, containing altogether about 4,672,000 acres, a portion of which is very valuable for its pine timber.
      The condition of these Indians, except those upon the White Earth reservation, has been but little changed during the past year from that of several years preceding. Great difficulty is still experienced in inducing the Indians to remain permanently upon their reservations; a roving life is still preferred by many, their old haunts presenting more attractions for them than new homes, with the unavoidable necessity of labor for subsistence. Yet, no inconsiderable number are already evidencing by their efforts, as well as by their professions, a new spirit of industry and enterprise. The past year has been one of trouble and unusual excitement on the part of both whites and Indians, on account of the ill-behavior of the Pillager band, and apprehensions of a serious outbreak were for a time entertained. Nine murders of citizens are reported to have been committed by individual Chippewas, mainly if not wholly of this band, and threats were made on the part of some of the Pillagers, which, if carried out, would have involved nearly all of the Indians of this section in hostilities. Happily, by the prompt arrival of United States troops upon the White Earth reservation, and more especially by the strong disapprobation of the conduct of the Pillagers expressed in council by the general body of Leech Lake Indians, and their evident purpose to unite with the Government in putting down any and all enemies of the peace, the crisis was passed, and comparative quiet has again been restored. In view of the atrocities committed by the Pillagers, and of the alarm occasioned thereby among the citizens of Minnesota, Governor Austin issued a proclamation requiring all Indians to remain upon their reservations under penalty, of arrest, to be effected by the militia of the State, should it be found necessary. In the present condition of things, however, a compliance by all with this requirement


[Page 23]

is simply impossible, and there is danger that, without the exercise of great prudence and forbearance on the part of the State authorities further and greater difficulties may arise. The "Otter Tail" Pillagers, to whom the difficulties referred to are principally due, have the right to a home on the White Earth reservation; they removed to it in 1871, but as they were not provided with the means of opening farms, nor with subsistence during the time necessary to raise a crop, they returned to their former haunts. They are now warned off from their grounds at Otter Tail by the State authorities. The larger portion of the Pillagers, together with the Winnebagoshish band, about fifteen hundred in number, live around Leech Lake; their general reputation for turbulence and worthlessness of character is well known and of long standing; still, there are those who seem willing and ready to work if assisted by the Government.
      Agent Smith, in charge says that their country is barren, with only, here and there, patches susceptible of tillage–accessable only by canoe or steamboat. In this connection, and adverting to the murders committed by the Pillagers, it is but just to notice that all lawlessness in Minnesota, in the region of the Indian reservations, is not confined to Indians. The murder of two Indians of the Otter Tail Pillagers for the offense of camping on a white man's ground is reported, while two others, who had been arrested at White Earth on suspicion of complicity in a murder, and lodged in jail for trial, were taken therefrom by a mob and hung. Such conduct can but have a pernicious effect upon the Indian mind, and tend to arouse spirit of revenge and retaliation.
      Mississippi bands.–These Indians reside in different localities. Most of them are on their reservation at White Earth; others are at Mille Lac, Gull Lake, and some at White Oak Point reservations. Upon the first-named reservation operations have been quite extensive in the erection of school-buildings, dwelling-houses, shops, and mills, and in breaking ground. At one time during the past summer there was a prospect of an abundant yield from 300 acres sown in cereals, but, unfortunately, the grasshoppers swept away the entire crop, and a second crop of buckwheat and turnips proved a failure. The Indians on this reservation are well-behaved and inclined to be industrious. Many of them are engaged in tilling the soil, while others are learning the mechanical arts; and they may, as a body, be said to be making considerable progress in the pursuits of civilized life. About one-half of the Indians at Gull Lake have been removed to White Earth; the remainder are opposed to removal, and will, in their present feeling, rather forfeit their annuities than change their location. The Mille Lac Chippewas, who continue to occupy the lands ceded by them in 1863, with reservation of the right to live thereon during good behavior, are indisposed to leave their old home for the new one designed for them on the White Earth reservation. Only about twenty-five have thus far been induced to remove. Their present reservation is rich in pine lands, the envy of lumber dealers, and there is a strong pressure on all sides for their early removal. They should have help from the Government, whether they remain or remove, and this could be afforded to a sufficient extent by the sale for their benefit of the timber upon the lands now occupied by them. Probably the Government could provide for them in no better way.
      The White Oak Point Chippewas were formerly known as Sandy Lake Indians. They were removed in 1867 from Sandy Lake and Rabbit Lake to White Oak Point, on the Mississippi, near the eastern part


[Page 24]

of the Leech Lake reservation. This location is unfavorable to their moral improvement and material progress, from its proximity to the lumber-camps of the whites. Thus far the effort made to better their condition by placing them on farming land, has proved a failure. The ground broken for them has gone back into grass, and their log-houses are in ruin, the former occupants betaking themselves to their wonted haunts. It would be well if these Indians could be induced to remove to the White Earth reservation.
      At Red Lake, the Indians have had a prosperous year; good crops of corn and potatoes have been raised, and a number of houses built. This band would be in much better circumstances were they possessed of a greater quantity of arable lands. That to which they are at present limited allows but five acres, suitable for that use, to each family. It is proposed to sell their timber, and, with the proceeds, clear lands, purchase stock, and establish a manual-labor school.
      The Pembina bands reside in Dakota Territory, but are here noticed in connection with the Minnesota Indians, because of their being attached to the same agency; they have no reservation, having ceded their lands by treaty made in 1863, but claim title to Turtle Mountain, in Dakota, on which some of them resided at the time of the treaty, and which lies west of the line of the cession then made. They number, the full-bloods about three hundred and fifty, and the half-breeds about one hundred. They lead a somewhat nomadic life, depending upon the chase for a precarious subsistence, in connection with an annuity from the Government of the United States. Their agent recommends that "the Government either recognize their right to Turtle Mountain, and furnish them means to change their mode of life, or else obtain a home for them on the White Earth reservation, and order them to remove there."
      The Chippewas of Minnesota have had but few educational advantages, but with the facilities now being afforded, and with the earnest endeavors that are now being put forth by their agent and the teachers employed, especially at White Earth, it is expected their interests in this regard will be greatly promoted. At White Earth, school operations have been quite successful, so much so that it will require additional accommodations to meet the demands of the Indians for the education of their children. The only other school in operation is that at Red Lake, under the auspices of the American Indian Mission Association. The school formerly maintained at Leech Lake is closed, the teacher having resigned and no successor having been obtained.
      The Mississippi bands have limited annuities, &c., under treaties of 1842, 1854, 1855, 1864, and 1867, as follows: In money, $24,166.66; in goods, provisions, tobacco, medicines, &c., $4,467.67; for their advancement in agriculture, &c., $6,000; for salaries of carpenters, farmers, physicians, &c., $2,600; for support of schools, $4,666.67; and in common with the Pillager and Locke Winnebagoshish bands, under treaty of May 7, 1864, as follows: In work-oxen, agricultural implements, &c., $1,500; for employment of carpenters, blacksmiths, laborers, physician, and female teachers, $7,700. The Pillager and Lake Winnebagoshish bands have limited annuities, &c., in addition to those in common with the Mississippi bands, under the treaty of February 22, 1855, as follows: In money, $10,666.66; goods, $8,000; for purposes of utility, $4,000; and for education, $3,000. The Red Lake and Pembina bands have limited annuities, &c., under the treaty made with them October 2, 1863, and supplementary treaty of April 12, 1864, as follows: Red Lake band, in money, $10,000, and in goods, $8,000; Pembina band, in money, $5,000, and in goods, $4,000. Together, they have for pay of physician, blacksmith, miller, and farmer, $3,900, and for purchase of


[Page 25]

iron and steel, and for carpentering and other purposes, $2,500. The annuities due the Mississippi bands will expire in two, four, and five years; those for the Pillager and Lake Winnebagoshish bands, in two and twelve years; and those for the Red Lake and Pembina bands, in six years, with the exception of their money annuity, which is to be paid during the pleasure of the President.

INDIANA.

      There are now in Indiana about three hundred and forty-five Miamies who did not go to Kansas when the tribe moved to that section, under the treaty of 1840. Under the treaty of June 5, 1854, these Indians have an annuity or the interest on the sum of $221,257.86, held in trust for them, amounting to $11,062.89, which is paid to them annually by a special agent of the Government, appointed for that purpose. They good citizens, many being thrifty farmers, giving no trouble either to their white neighbors or to the Government. There is also a small band called the Eel River band of Miamies, residing in this State, and in Michigan. They number only nineteen, and have a permanent annuity of $500 secured to them by treaty of August 3, 1795.

NORTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE, AND GEORGIA.

      Cherokees.–There are residing in these States probably about seventeen hundred Cherokees, who elected to remain, under the provisions respecting Cherokees averse to removal contained in the twelfth article of the treaty with the Cherokees of 1835. Under the act of July 29, 1848, a per capita transportation and subsistence fund of $53.33 was created and set apart for their benefit in accordance with census-roll made under the provisions of said act, the interest on which fund until such time as they shall individually remove to the Indian Country is the only money to which those named, in said roll, who are living or the heirs of those who have deceased are entitled. This interest is too small to be of any benefit, and some action should be taken by Congress, with a view of having all business matters between these Indians and the Government settled, by removing such of them west as now desire to go, and paying those who decline to remove the per capita fund referred to. The Government has no agent residing with these Indians. In accordance with their earnestly expressed desire to be brought under the immediate charge of the Government, as its wards, Congress by law approved July 27, 1868, directed that the Secretary of the Interior should cause the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to take the same supervisory charge of them as of other tribes Indians; but this practically amounts to nothing, in the absence of means to carry out the intention of the law with any beneficial result to the Indians. The condition of this people is represented to be deplorable. Before the late rebellion they were living in good circumstances, engaged with all the success which could be expected, in farming, and in various minor industrial pursuits. Like all other inhabitants of this section, they suffered much during the war, and are now from this and other causes much impoverished.

FLORIDA.

      Seminoles–There are a few Seminoles–supposed to number about three hundred–still residing in Florida, being those or the descendants of those, who refused to accompany the tribe when it removed to the west many years ago. But little is known of their condition and


[Page 26]

temper; and in order that satisfactory information in regard to their number, condition, and means of support, might be obtained, especially with a view to intelligent action under representations made to this Office that an outbreak might at some time occur, steps have been taken by this Office to have the Indians visited in their abodes among the everglades by a gentleman of high official position in whose judgment and discretion the Office reposes great confidence. No report has yet been received as the result of this mission.

NEBRASKA, KANSAS, AND THE INDIAN TERRITORY.

      The tribes residing in Nebraska, Kansas, and the Indian Territory are divided as follows: In Nebraska about 6,485; in Kansas, 1,500; in the Indian Territory, 62,465.

NEBRASKA.

      The Indians in Nebraska are the Santee Sioux, Winnebagoes, Omahas, Pawnees, Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri, Iowas, and the Otoes and Missourias.
      The Santee Sioux now numbering 965, a decrease from last year of 22, are a portion of the Sisseton, Wahpeton, Medawakanton and Wahpakoota bands of Sioux of the Mississippi, belonging thus to the great Sioux or Dakota nation. They formerly, with other members of the same bands, now located on reservations in Dakota, one at Devil's Lake, in the northeast corner of the Territory, and another at Lake Traverse, near their old home, had an extensive and valuable reservation in Minnesota, stretching, with a width of ten miles, a long distance on the south side of the Minnesota River, and were comparatively wealthy and prosperous until the Sioux outbreak in 1862, in which, it will be remembered, nearly 1,000 white citizens lost their lives. After the suppression of hostilities consequent on this outbreak, most of the Santee Sioux were removed, in 1863, to the Crow Creek reservation, and finally, in 1866, to their present location near the mouth of the Niobrara River, at which point their numbers were increased, to the extent of about 200, by the accession of other Sioux, who had been held at Davenport, Iowa, as prisoners, charged with complicity in the outbreak, but were pardoned by the President.
      The reservation of the Santee Sioux contains 83,200 acres, of which a small portion only is suitable for agricultural purposes, the country generally being broken with high bluffs and deep ravines. Lands have been allotted in severalty to over 200. These Indians are peaceable, industrious and well advanced in the arts of life, and will soon render themselves independent of the assistance now afforded by the Government. They have about 500 acres in cultivation, upon which good crops of wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, &c., are raised, when not destroyed by that scourge of the country, the grasshopper. The houses of the Santee Sioux are generally of rude structure; those first built being without windows and having only dirt floors and roofs. The Indians are, however, improving of late in this regard, and building much more durable and comfortable dwellings. They are parties to the treaty made in 1868 with the nine bands of the Sioux Nation, ranging in the region of the Upper Missouri River. In addition to the benefits derived by the Santee Sioux under this treaty, they have moneys resulting from the sale of their lands in Minnesota, which are being used for their benefit in improving their farms, and otherwise aiding them in their efforts to become self-supporting. Three schools are in successful operation on their reservation having in attendance 323 scholars. There are also


[Page 27]

missions of the Episcopal Church, and the "American Board," (A. B. C. F. M.,) effecting a good work with this people, gathering many into the Christian church, and preparing not a few for missionary labor among kindred Sioux bands.
      Winnebagoes.–These Indians, numbering 1,440, a gain of 40 over last year, are located in the eastern part of Nebraska, on a reservation containing 128,000 acres, adjoining that of the Omahas, and lying about eighty miles north of the city of Omaha. They are the remnant of a once powerful tribe which formerly inhabited Wisconsin, from which State they removed to Minnesota under the treaty of 1837. At the outbreak of the Sioux in 1862, they were peaceably engaged in agriculture, in a beautiful and fertile country, on the waters of the Blue Earth River, a majority being thriving and industrious farmers, many of them possessing considerable intelligence. Although the Winnebagoes were wholly disconnected with that outbreak, yet the citizens in their immediate vicinity, as well as in other portions of Minnesota, were so determined that all Indians should be removed beyond the limits of the State, that Congress in 1863 passed an act providing for their removal. They were first removed in May, 1863, to Crow Creek, in Dakota, and, after great suffering and loss of many lives from exposure and starvation, were finally established upon their present reservation, which had been secured for them by the Government under treaty stipulations with the Omahas, and at which they arrived in small and straggling parties during the year 1864. They are now gradually regaining their former comfortable and prosperous condition. Allotments of lands have been made to them. Their agent reports that the past year has been marked by a steady improvement of the condition generally of the tribe. The men have nearly all adopted the dress of the whites, and the agent anticipates that the women will do the same so soon as they shall come to live in houses, a number of which (50) of a better class than is usually provided for Indian occupancy, are now being erected, to be given to those most industrious and making the greatest progress toward civilization. Considerable interest is manifested in education, there being three day-schools, efficiently managed, with an attendance of 250 scholars, and there is probably in operation by this date also an industrial and boarding school, capable of accommodating 80 scholars.
      Under the provisions of the treaties made with them November 1, 1837, October 13, 1846, and various acts of Congress, they have an annual appropriation of $52,031.84, and a small amount received for the sale of their lands in Minnesota, as the same are being sold, a small portion of which is paid to them per capita, and the residue expended for their benefit in the purchase of goods, in paying employes, in improving the reservation, for educational purposes, &c.
      Omahas.–The Omahas, a peaceable and inoffensive people numbering 969, a decrease since 1871 of 15, are native to the country now occupied by them, and occupy a reservation of 345,600 acres adjoining the Winnebagoes. They have lands allotted to them in severalty, and have made considerable advancement in agriculture and civilization, though they still follow the chase to some extent. Under the provisions of the act of June 10, 1872, steps are being taken to sell 50,000 acres of the western part of their reservation. The proceeds of the sale of these lands will enable them to improve and stock their farms, build houses, &c., and, with proper care and industry, to become in a few years entirely self-sustaining. A few cottages are to be found upon this reservation. Preparations are being made for the erection, during the next season, of an additional number of decent houses for the use of these Indians.


[Page 28]

      There are at present three schools in operation on this reservation, with an attendance of 120 scholars. By the provisions of the treaties of March 16, 1854, and March 6, 1865, the Omahas have a limited annuity of $20,000 for the term of ten years, and thereafter of $10,000 for the further term of fifteen years, which is paid to them per capita, or expended for their benefit; and are also provided with a saw and grist mill, a blacksmith-shop, and an engineer, miller, farmer, and blacksmith, at an annual expense to the Government of $4,500.
      Pawnees.–The Pawnees, a warlike people number 2,447, an increase for the past year of 83. They are located on a reservation of 288,000 acres, in the central part of the State. They are native to the country now occupied by them, and have for years been loyal to the Government, having frequently furnished scouts for the Army in operations against hostile tribes or marauding bands. Their location, so near the frontier, and almost in constant contact with the Indians of the plains, with whom they have been always more or less at war, has tended to retard their advancement in the arts of civilization. They are, however, gradually becoming more habituated to the customs of the whites; are giving some attention to agriculture, and, with the disappearance of the buffalo from their section of the country, will doubtless settle down to farming and to the practice of mechanical arts, in earnest. The act of June 10, 1872, heretofore referred to, provides also for the sale of 50,000 acres belonging to the Pawnees, the same to be taken from that part of their reservation lying south of Loup Fork. These lands are now being surveyed, and it is believed that, with the proceeds of this sale, such improvements, in the way of building houses and opening and stocking farms, can be made for the Pawnees as will, at an early day, induce them to give their entire time and attention to industrial pursuits. There are two schools in operation on the reservation; one a manual-labor boarding-school, the other a day-school, with an attendance at both of 118 scholars. Provision was also made by Congress, at its last sessions, for the erection of two additional school-houses for the use of this tribe.
      Under the provisions of the treaty of September 24, 1857, made with these Indians, they have a perpetual annuity of $30,000 secured to them, part of which is paid to them per capita, and the residue expended for their benefit in goods and other beneficial objects; also for educational purposes $13,900, annually; farming utensils and stock, $1,200; and for salary of physician, farmer, and other employes, purchase of medicines, supplies for shops, &c., in all, $7,580.
      Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri.–These Indians, formerly a portion of the same tribe with the Indians now known as the Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi, emigrated many years ago from Iowa, and settled near the tribe of Iowas, hereafter to be mentioned. They number at the present time but 88, having been steadily diminishing for years. They have a reservation of about 16,000 acres lying in the southeastern part of Nebraska and the northeastern part of Kansas, purchased for them from the Iowas. Most of it is excellent land; but they have never, to any considerable extent, made use of it for tillage, being almost hopelessly disinclined to engage in labor of any kind, and depending principally for their subsistence, a very poor one, upon their annuity, which is secured to them by the treaty of October 31, 1837, and amounts to $7,870. They also have United States bonds held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior to the amount of $21,925, the interest on which, $1,217.25 together with said annuity, is either paid to them per capita, or expended for their benefit. By act of June 10, 1872, provision


[Page 29]

was made for the sale of a portion or all of their reservation, the proceeds of such sale to be expended for their immediate use, or for their removal to the Indian Territory or elsewhere. They have consented to the sale of their entire reservation, and so soon as funds shall have been received from that source, steps will be taken to have them removed to the Indian Territory south of Kansas.
      There are no schools in operation for this tribe. Up to the present year they have not manifested any special desire to be educated in letters or in industrial pursuits, and it could only be said in their favor that they were a civil and inoffensive people. During the present season, however, they have asked the Government to set apart one-half the proceeds of their lands for the erection and endowment of a manual-labor school, being moved thereto by the spectacle of the Iowa and Omaha children receiving instruction in schools of this character, and have professed a very strong desire to secure the same advantages for their own children. The willingness, thus manifested, to sacrifice the present to the future is a new thing for these Indians, and is so far hopeful. Congress will be asked to authorize the creation of an educational fund for them, in accordance with their wish. They desire, after disposing of their lands in Nebraska, to make their new home on the Osage reservation in the Indian Territory, purchasing from the Osages thirty sections for that use. It is understood that the latter tribe are favorable to this proposition, and so soon as their formal consent shall have been obtained, Congress will be asked to confirm the sale. The lands owned by the Sacs and Foxes in Kansas should also be sold at an early day for their benefit, and legislation to that end will, at the proper time, be recommended.
      Iowas.–These Indians, numbering at present 225, emigrated years ago from Iowa and Northwestern Missouri, and now have a reservation adjoining the Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri, containing about 16,000 acres. They belong to a much better class of Indians than their neighbors, the Sacs and Foxes, being temperate, frugal, industrious, and interested in the education of their children. They were thoroughly loyal during the late rebellion, and furnished a number of soldiers to the Union Army. Many of them are good farmers, and as a tribe they are generally extending their agricultural operations, improving their dwellings, and adding to their comforts. A large majority of the tribe are anxious to have their reservation allotted in severalty; and inasmuch as they are not inclined to remove to another locality it would seem desirable that their wishes in this respect should be complied with. One school is in operation on the reservation, with an attendance of 68 scholars, besides an industrial home for orphans, supported by the Indians themselves.
      The Iowas have secured to them, under the treaty of May 17, 1854, the interest on $57,500, amounting annually to $2,875; also the interest on $107,326.80, United States and State bonds, held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, amounting annually to $6,609.34; and on $66,735, placed to their credit on the books of the Treasury by act of July 12, 1862, amounting annually to $3,336.75. These several sums of interest are either paid to them or expended for their benefit.
      Otoes and Missourias.–These Indians, numbering 464, an increase of 14 over last year, were removed from Iowa and Missouri to their present beautiful and fertile reservation, comprising 160,000 acres, and situated in the southern part of Nebraska. Until quite recently they have evinced but little disposition to labor for a support or in any way to better their miserable condition; yet, cut off from their wonted source of


[Page 30]

subsistence, the buffalo, by their fear of the wild tribes which have taken possession of their old hunting-grounds, they have gradually been more and more forced to work for a living. Within the last three years many of them have opened farms and built themselves houses. A school has also been established, having an attendance of 95 scholars. Their reservation is much larger than necessary, and provision for the sale of one-half of it was made in the act of June 10, 1872; but as they decline to dispose of any portion of their lands, the matter cannot be further proceeded with at present. While they are averse to selling a portion of their land, however, as proposed by the act of June 10, 1872, it is not unlikely that they would be willing to sell the whole and remove to the Indian Territory, as they manifest an anxiety to follow tribes now there, with whom they formerly held intimate relations. With a view to the probability of such a change, a deputation of the tribe visited the Indian Territory but a short time since, and, returning, reported favorably in regard to the matter. It is probable that Congress will at an early date be asked to provide authority for this disposition of the tribe. Under the treaty made with them March 15, 1854, the Otoes and Missourias have a limited annuity of $9,000 for the term of ten years, and thereafter the sum of $5,000 for the further term of twelve years, which is paid to them in money, or expended for their benefit.

KANSAS.

      The Indians still remaining in Kansas are the Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, (Prairie band,) Chippewas and Munsees, Miamies, and the Kansas, or Kaws.
      Kickapoos.–The Kickapoos emigrated from Illinois, and are now located, to the number of 290, on a reservation of 19,200 acres, in the northeastern part of the State. During the late war a party of about 100, dissatisfied with the treaty made with the tribe in 1863, went to Mexico, upon representations made to them by certain of their kinsmen living in that republic, that they would be welcomed and protected by the Mexican government; but, finding themselves deceived, attempted to return to the United States. Only a few, however, succeeded in reaching the Kickapoo agency. The Kickapoos now remaining in Mexico separated from the tribe more than twenty years ago, and settled among the southern Indians, in the Indian Territory, on or near the Washita River, whence they went to Mexico, where they still live, notwithstanding the efforts of the Government, of late, to arrange with Mexico for their removal to the Indian Territory and location upon some suitable reservation. Their raids across the border have been a sore affliction to the people of Texas, and it is important that the first promising occasion should be taken to secure their return to the United States and their establishment where they may be carefully watched and restrained from their depredatory habits, or summarily punished if they persist in them. The Kickapoos remaining in Kansas are peaceable and industrious, continuing to make commendable progress in the cultivation of their farms, and showing much interest in the education of their children. Under the provisions of the treaty of June 28, 1862, a few of these Indians have received lands in severalty, for which patents have been issued, and are now citizens of the United States. Two schools are in operation among these Indians, with a daily average attendance of 39 scholars. By the treaty of May 18, 1854, they have an annual appropriation of $5,000 secured to them for educational and other beneficial purposes. There is also one more installment of annuity


[Page 31]

due them, amounting to $5,000. In addition to these items, they have the interest on $131,400 United States bonds, held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, amounting annually to $6,570.
      Pottawatomies.–-The Prairie band is all of this tribe remaining in Kansas, the rest having become citizens and removed, or most of them, to the Indian Territory. The tribe, excepting those in Wisconsin heretofore noticed, formerly resided in Michigan and Indiana, and removed to Kansas under the provisions of the treaty of 1846. The Prairie band numbers, as nearly as ascertained, about 400, and is located on a reserve of 77,357 acres fourteen miles north of Topeka. Notwithstanding many efforts to educate and civilize these Indians, most of them still cling tenaciously to the habits and customs of their fathers. Some, however, have recently turned their attention to agricultural pursuits, and are now raising stock and most of the varieties of grain produced by their white neighbors. They are also showing more interest in education than formerly, one school being in operation on the reservation with an attendance of 84 scholars. These Indians have permanent annuities under the provisions of the treaties of August 3, 1795, September 30, 1809, October 2, 1818, September 20, 1828, July 29, 1829, June 5 and 17, 1846, amounting in the aggregate to $22,779.07 in silver and money; also permanent provisions for blacksmiths and assistants, for iron and steel, and for salt, amounting annually to $1,362.77, and an annual appropriation, during the pleasure of Congress, of $5,000 for educational purposes. In addition to the foregoing they have United States and State bonds, to the amount of $91,500, held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, the interest on which, $4,585, is applied to educational purposes; and also United States bonds to the amount of $20,000, the interest on which, $1,000, is expended for their benefit. The citizen class, so called, have an interest in $67,000 of the bonds held in trust for educational purposes.
      Chippewas and Munsees.–Certain of the Chippewas of Saginaw, Swan Creek, and Black River, removed from Michigan, under the treaty of 1836, and certain Munsees, or Christian Indians from Wisconsin, under the treaty of 1839. These were united by the terms of the treaty concluded with them July 16, 1859. The united bands now number only 56. They own 5,760 acres of land in Franklin County, about forty miles south of the town of Lawrence, holding the same in severalty, are considerably advanced in the arts of life, and earn a decent living, principally by agriculture. They have one school in operation, with an attendance of 16 scholars. These Indians, at present, have no treaty with the United States, nor do they receive any assistance irom the Government. Their only assured income beyond the avails of their labor is the interest, $2,451.77, on United States and State stocks, held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, to the amount of $43,322.92. They manifest a desire to sell their allotted lands, and join other Indians in the Indian Territory. Miamies.–The Miamies of Kansas formerly resided in Indiana, forming one tribe with the Miamies still remaining in that State, but removed in 1846 to their present location, under the provisions of the treaty of 1840.
      Owing to the secession of a considerable number who have allied themselves with the Peorias, in the Indian Territory, and also to the ravages of disease consequent on vicious indulgences, especially in the use of intoxicating drinks, this band, which, on its removal from Indiana, embraced about 500, at present numbers but 95. These have a reservation of 10,240 acres in Linn and Miami Counties, in the southeast part of Kansas, the larger part of which is held in severalty by them.


[Page 32]

      The superintendent of Indian affairs in immediate charge, in his report for this year, says the Miamies remaining in Kansas are greatly demoralized, their school has been abandoned, and their youth left destitute of educational advantages.
      Considerable trouble has been for years caused by white settlers locating aggressively on lands belonging to these Indians, no effort for their extrusion having been thus far successful.
      A bill was introduced into Congress at its last session which provided for the final settlement of the affairs of this tribe for the members thereof becoming citizens, and for the capitalization and payment of the tribal bands. This bill met the full approval of this Office, and it is confidently believed that had it become law the affairs of the tribe would have been adjusted in a manner which would have been advantageous to the Indians, and which would also have relieved this Department of a source of constant annoyance. The bill referred to, or one similar in its provisions, should receive the sanction of Congress at an early day. The good of the service, so far as these Indians are concerned, absolutely requires it.
      Under the provisions of the treaties made with these Indians October 6, 1818, October 23, 1834, and June 5, 1854, they have limited annuity (seven installments still due) in money, of $7,500; the interest on $50,000, amounting to $2,500 annually for educational purposes, and a permanent provision for blacksmith and assistant, iron and steel, and for miller, amounting annually to $1,540.
      Kansas or Kaws.–These Indians are native to the country they occupy. They number at present 593; in 1860 they numbered 803. Although they have a reservation of 80,640 acres of good land in the eastern part of the State, they are poor and improvident, and have, in late years, suffered much for want of the actual necessaries of life. They never were much disposed to labor, depending upon the chase for a living, in connection with the annuities due from Government. They have been growing steadily poorer, and even now, in their straitened circumstances, and under the pressure of want, they show but little inclination to engage in agricultural pursuits, all attempts to induce them to work having measurably proved failures. Until quite recently they could not even be prevailed upon to have their children educated. One school is now in operation, with an attendance of about 45 scholars. By the act of May 8, 1872, provision was made for the sale of all the lands owned by these Indians in Kansas, and for their removal to the Indian Territory. Provision was also made by the act of June 5, 1872, for their settlement within the limits of a tract of land therein provided to be set apart for the Osages. Their lands in Kansas are now being appraised by commissioners appointed for the purpose, preparatory to their sale. Fifty per centum of the net proceeds of such sale is to be placed to the credit of the Indians on the books of the Treasury, interest thereon at the rate of 5 per centurn to be paid to them semi-annually, and the remaining 50 per centurn is to be used in providing and improving new homes for them. Under the treaty made with them January 14, 1846, a permanent annuity of $10,000 is secured to them, the same being the interest on a principal sum of $200,000, the price agreed to be paid by the United States for the cession of certain lands. They have also United States and State stocks to the amount of $27,485.41, held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, the interest on which, amounting to $1,538.57 annully, is applied to educational purposes.


[Page 33]

INDIAN TERRITORY.

      The Indians at present located in the Indian Territory–an extensive district, bounded north by Kansas, east by Missouri and Arkansas, south by Texas, and west by the one hundredth meridian, designated by the commissioners appointed under act of Congress July 20, 1867, to establish peace with certain hostile tribes, as one of two great Territories, (the other being, in the main, the present Territory of Dakota, west of the Missouri,) upon which might be concentrated the great body of all the Indians east of the Rocky Mountains, are the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, Seminoles, Senecas, Shawnees, Quapaws, Ottawas of Blanchard's Fork and Roche de Bțuf, Peorias and confederated Kaskaskias, Wens and Piankeshaws, Wyandotts, Pottgwatomies, Sacs axed Foxes of the Mississippi, Osages, Kiowas, Comanches, the Arapahoes and Cheyennes of the south, the Wichitas and other affiliated bands, and a small band of Apaches long confederated with the Kiowas and Comanches.
      Cherokees.–The Cherokees number, according to the census for 1872, furnished by their agent, 18,000. In the report for 1871 the agent estimated the number at 14,682, and stated that if the Cherokees remaining in North Carolina and other States were gathered into the nation the population would then be 16,500. He does not now account for the large increase over the enumeration for 1871, which must be due to a gross error in one report or the other. The Cherokees occupy a reservation of 3,844,712 acres in the northeastern part of the Territory, lying east of the 96ț west longitude. They also own a strip about fifty miles wide adjoining Kansas on the south, and extending from the Arkansas River west to the 100ț west longitude. By the treaty of 1866, however, the United States may settle friendly Indians within the limits of the latter tract, and when such settlements are made the rights of the Cherokees to the lands so occupied terminate, the lands thus disposed of to be paid for to the Cherokee Nation at such price as may be agreed upon by the parties in interest, or as may be fixed by the President. That portion of country lying between the 96ț west longitude on the east, the Arkansas River on the west and south, and the State of Kansas on the north, formerly owned by the Cherokees, has been sold to the Osages.
      The Cherokees originally inhabited sections of country now embraced within the State of Georgia and portions of the States of Tennessee and North Carolina, and moved to their present location under the provisions of the treaties concluded with them in 1817 and 1835. They have their own written language, their national constitution and laws, their churches, schools, and academies, their judges and courts. They are emphatically an agricultural and stock-raising people, and, perhaps, of all the Indian tribes, great and small, are first in general intelligence, in the acquisition of wealth, in the knowledge of the useful arts, and in social and moral progress. The evidences of a real and substaniial advancement in these respects are too clear to be questioned, and it is the more remarkable from the fact that but a few years since they were, as a people, almost ruined by the ravages of civil war. Their dwellings consist of 500 frame-houses, and 3,500 log-houses. Of the principal crops, they have raised during the year 2,925,000 bushels of corn, 97,500 bushels of wheat, about the same quantity of oats, and 80,000 bushels of potatoes. Their stock consists of 16,000 horses, 75,000 cattle, 160,000 hogs, and 9,000 sheep. The individual wealth is estxmated at $4,995,000.
       3IA


[Page 34]

      By the latest reports they had 60 schools in successful operations, a11, with the exception of one managed by the Moravians, maintained out of the national school fund, and having in attendance 2,133 scholar. Three of these schools are for the education of the freedmen living the country. The orphans of the Cherokees have been heretofore provided for in private families, by means of the interest derived from certain funds invested for that purpose, but during the past year an orphan asylum has been established under an act of the National Council, where are now gathered 54 of this class. This school is designed ultimately to embrace in its operations all the orphans of the nation.
      The Cherokees have no treaty-funds paid to them or expended for their benefit. They have, however, United States and State bonds held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, to the amount of $1,633,627.39; also a recognized claim on account of abstracted State bonds to the amount of $83,000, on which the interest is appropriated annually by Congress, making in all $1,716,627.39. This sum is divide under the following heads, viz: National fund, $1,008,285.07; school fund, $532,407.01; orphan fund, $175,935.31. The interest on these several sums is paid to the treasurer of the Cherokee nation, to be used under the direction of the National Council for the objects indicated by said heads.
      While the present condition and general prosperity of the Cherokees are as indicated above, there are some matters that have been, and in part are still, sources of disquiet and dissatisfaction among them. These matters will be found fully discussed in the annual report of Agent John B. Jones, accompanying, and may be here briefly stated as: The unlawful attempts of citizens of the United States to settle upon ]ands belonging to the Cherokees, with the probable expectation that the Government would tacitly consent to their remaining and eventually secure them in possession. At one time during the past summer, these trespassers numbered about fifteen hundred; and inasmuch as the number was constantly increasing, notwithstanding ample and formal notice served upon the intruders, it was decided by the Executive that forcible measures should be taken for their removal, which, after some delays, was effected by the military forces of the Department of the Missouri. It is hoped that this action of the Government in thus vindicating the integrity of an Indian reservation against lawless and even defiant encroachments will sufficiently establish the conviction in the minds of all persons similarly disposed that at last red men have rights which white men are bound to respect. 2d. The jurisdiction exercised by the United States court for the western district of Arkansas over the Cherokee Country, to a degree and for purposes which the Indians assert to constitute a violation of treaty stipulations guaranteeing to them the right to have their own courts and administer justice in all cases concerning their own citizens. It is alleged, on the part of the Cherokee authorities, that the disregard of this guarantee was the cause of the recent tragedy in Going Snake district, through an attempt by the United States marshal to arrest an Indian who was at the time on trial before the Cherokee court on a charge of having murdered a Cherokee woman, the ground of the action of the marshal being that the Indian was also charged with having committed an assault with intent to kill upon the murdered woman's husband, who, although a white man, had been duly adopted into the Cherokee nation. In this unfortunate affair eight members of the deputy marshal's party were killed and three wounded, while of the Cherokees present attending court three were killed and seven wounded. 3d. The efforts of certain parties


[Page 35]

to secure the organization, by act of Congress, of a United States terri torial government over the Indian Territory without the consent of the tribes concerned, a measure which, if consummatted, the Cherokees believe will be fraught with serious evils to themselves.
      Choctaws and Chiclcasaw.–These tribes are for certain national purposes confederated. The Choctaws, numbering 16,000, an increase of 1,000 on the enumeration for 1871, have a reservation of 6,688,000 acres in the southeastern part of the Territory, and the Chickasaws, numbering 6,000, own a tract containing 4,377,600 acres adjoining the Choctaws on the west. These tribes originally inhabited the section of country now embraced within the State of Mississippi, and were removed to their present location in accordance with the terms of the treaties concluded with them, respectively, in 1820 and 1832. The remarks made respecting the language, laws, education, advantages, industrial pursuits, and advancement in the arts and customs of civilized life of the Cherokees, will apply in the main to the Choctaws and Chickasaws. The Choctaws have 36 schools in operation, with an attendance of 819 scholars; the Chickasaws 11, with 379 scholars. The Choctaws, under the treaties of November 16, 1805, October 18, 1820, January 20, 1825, and June 22, 1855, receive permanent annuities as follows: In money; $3,000; for support of government, education, and other beneficial purposes, $25,512.89; for support of light-horsemen, $600; and for iron and steel, $320. They also have United States and State stocks held trust forr them by the Secretary of the Interior, to the amount of $506,427,20, divided as follows: On account of "Choctaw general fund," $454,000, of "Choctaw school fund," $52,427.20. The interest these funds, and the annuities, &c., are turned over to the treasurer of the nation, and expended under the direction of the National Council in the manner and for the objects indicated in each case. The Chickasaws, under act of February 25, 1799, and treaty of April 28, 1866, have a permanent annuity of $3,000. They also have United States and State stocks, held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, to the amount of $1,185,947.03 2/3; $1,183,947.03 2/3 thereof being a "national fund," and $2,000 a fund for "incompetents." The interest on these sums, and the item of $3,000 first referred to, are paid over to the treasurer of the nation and disbursed by him, under the direction of the National Council, and for such objects as that body may determine.
      Creeks.–The Creeks came originally from Alabama and Georgia. They numbered at the latest date of enumeration 12,205, and have reservation of 3,215,495 acres in the eastern and central part of the Territory. They are not generally so far advanced as the Cherokees, Choctaws and Chickasaws, but are making rapid progress, and will doubtless, in a few years, rank in all respects with their neighbors, the three tribes just named. Considerable embarrassment and excitement have been caused recently within the tribe by the contests of two factions, known respectively as the Government party and the Sands party, arising, it is asserted, out of the adoption by the nation, in 1867, of a new form of government, which dispensed with a number of offices. The incumbents failing to receive appointment under the new administration, became dissatisfied, and, with Sands, a prominent man and disappointed seeker for the position of principal chief of the nation, formed an organization under their old system, in opposition to the present constitional government, going so far in their resistance as to take up arms, declaring a purpose to seize the government and reinaugurate the former order. A settlement of the difficulties was apparentIy elected at a council of the nation in October, with the prospect


[Page 36]

of future peace and harmony; but, a few weeks later, the spirit of disaffection was again developed in the ignorant portion of the Creeks to such an extent that the Creek authorities were obliged to overawe the malcontents with a large armed force. This action, together with the interposition of a commission appointed by the Department to investigate the troubles, and the presence of a United States military force, resulted in a peace under substantially the conditions agreed upon by the contending parties in October last. The whole matter now awaits the action of the Department upon the report of the commission of investigation. The Creeks, by the latest reports, have 33 schools in operation, one of which is under the management of the Methodist Mission Society, and another supported by the Presbyterians. The number of scholars in all the schools is 760. These Indians have, under treaties of August 7, 1790, June 16, 1802, January 24, 1826, August 7 1856, and June 14, 1866, permanent annuities and interest on moneys uninvested as follows: In money, $68,258.40; for pay of blacksmiths and assistants, wagon-maker, wheelwright, iron and steel, $3,250; for assistance in agricultural operations, $2,000; and for education, $1,000. The Secretary of the Interior holds in trust for certain members of the tribe, known as "orphans," United States and State bonds to the amount of $76,999.66, the interest on which sum is paid to those of said orphans who are alive, and to the representatives of those who have deceased. This orphan fund was derived from the sale of twenty sections of land reserved, per treaty of March 24, 1832, for the orphan children of the Creeks. Most of the persons originally entitled to these proceeds are dead, and action should be taken by Congress to authorize the payment of the full amount held in trust as above to the survivors of them, and the representatives of those who have deceased.
      Seminoles.–The Seminoles, numbering 2,398, an increase of 190 over the census of 1871, have a reservation of 200,000 acres adjoining the Creeks on the west. This tribe formerly inhabited the section of country now embraced in the State of Florida. Some of them removed their present location under the provisions of the treaties of 1832 and 1833. The remainder of the tribe instigated by the former chief, Osceola, repudiated the treaties, refused to remove, and soon after commenced depredating upon the whites. In 1835 these depredations resuited in war, which continued seven years, with immense cost of blood and treasure. The Indians were at last rendered powerless to do further injury, and, after efforts repeated through several years, were finally, with the exception of a few who fled to the everglades, removed to a reservation in the now Indian Territory. In 1866 they ceded to the United States, by treaty, the reservation then owned by them, and purchased the tract they at present occupy. They are not so far advanced in the arts of civilized life as the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Creeks, but are making rapid progress in that direction, and will, it is confidently believed, soon rank with the tribes named. They cultivate 7,600 acres, upon which they raised during the past year 300,000 bushels of corn and 6,000 bushels of potatoes. They live in log-houses, and own large stocks of cattle, horses, and hogs. A cause of discontent and just complaint on the part of this people is found in the fact that the Government, in providing them a new home, after the cession of their reservation under the treaty of 1866, misled them as to their boundary-line, so that many have settled beyond the line, upon territory still belonging to the Creeks, and have there established themselves in comfortable homes and upon lands which they have very much mproved. The Seminoles so situated are troubled and discouraged,


[Page 37]

having no security as to their possession of the lands and improvements thereon. so occupied. As the mistake was not theirs, they look to the Government to adjust the matter with the Creeks, and to secure them in their rights and in the possession of their present homes. The Department has the matter under careful advisement, and will earnestly seek to avoid any unfortunate issue of the complication. So soon as the best method of saving at once the rights of the Creeks and the equities of the Seminoles shall be determined, Congress will be asked to provide the requisite authority for the adjustment of the question. The schools of the Seminoles number 4, with an attendance of 169 scholars.
      They receive, under treaties made with them August 7, 1856, and March 21, 1866, annuities. &c., as follows: Interest on $500,000, amounting to $25,000 annually, which is paid to them as annuity; interest on $50,000, amounting to $2,500 annually, for support of schools; and $1,000, the interest on $20,000, for the support of their government.
      Senecas and Shawnees.–-The Senecas, numbering 214, and the Shawnees, numbering 90, at the present time, removed, some thirty-five or forty years ago, from Ohio to their present location in the northeastern corner of the Territory. They suffered severely during the rebellion, being obliged to leave their homes and fly to the North, their country being devastated by troops of both armies. Under the provisions of the treaty of 1867, made with these and other tribes, the Senecas, who were then confederated with the Shawnees, dissolved their connection with that tribe, sold to the United States their half of the reservation owned by them in common with the Shawnees, and connected themselves with those Senecas who then owned a separate reservation. The Shawnees now have a reservation of 24,960 acres, and the united Senecas one of 44,000 acres. These tribes are engaged in agriculture to a considerable extent. They are peaceable and industrious. Many are thrifty farmers and in comfortable circumstances. They have one school in operation, with an attendance of 36 scholars, which includes some children of the Wyandotts, which tribe has no schools.
      The Senecas, under treaties of September 29, 1817, September 17, 1818, and February 23, 1867, have at the present time annuities and stocks as follows: Permanent annuities in specie to the amount of $1,500; for national purposes. $1,660; bonds held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, $40,944.37, on which an annual interest of $2,047.22 is paid to them; also, in connection with the Shawnees, bonds held in trust as aforesaid to the amount of $15,655.49, on which interest to the amount of $880.39 is annually paid. The Shawnees have, under treaties of September 17, 1818, and February 23, 1867, permanent annuities to the amount of $500 in specie, and $1,060 for agricultural purposes, together with a half interest in the item of $15,655.49, bonds above referred to. With the Shawnee band is a party of 40 "Black Bob" Shawnees, recently arrived from Kansas in an impoverished condition, whose wants have, for the present season, been partly met by the Government.
      Quapaws.–These Indians number at the present time about 240. They are native to the country, and occupy a reservation of 104,000 acres in the extreme northeast corner of the Territory. They do not appear to have advanced much within the past few years. In common with other tribes in that section, they suffered greatly by the late war, and were rendered very destitute. Their proximity to the border towns of Kansas, and the facilities thereby afforded for obtaining whisky, have tended to retard their progress; but there has recently manifested a strong desire for improvement, and, with the funds


[Page 38]

derived from the sale of a part of their lands, and with the proposed opening of a school among them, better things are hoped for in the future. Under the treaties of May 13, 1833, and February 23, 1867, the Quapaws have an educational fund of $1,000 per annum during the pleasure of the President, $1,060 per annum for pay of blacksmith aml assistant, and for the purchase of iron, steel, and tools, and $600 annually for agricultural purposes.
      Ottawas.–The Ottawas of Blanchard's Fork and Roche de Bțuf number, at the present time, 150. They were originally located in Western Ohio and Southern Michigan, and were removed, in accordance with the terms of the treaty concluded with them in 1831, to a reservation within the present limits of Kansas. Under the treaty of 1867 they obtained a reservation of 24,960 acres, lying immediately north of the western portion of the Shawnee reservation. They have paid considerable attention to education, are well advanced in civilization, and many of them are industrious and prosperous farmers. They have one school, attended by 52 scholars. The relation of this small band to the Government is somewhat anomalous, inasmuch as, agreeably to provisions contained in the treaties of 1862 and 1867, they have become citizens of the United States, and yet reside in the Indian Country, possess a reservation there, and maintain a purely tribal organization. They removed from Franklin County, Kansas, in 1570. They have no annuities paid them, but the Secretrary of the Interior at the present time holds in trust for them United States bonds to the amount of $21,724.48, the interest on which sum, amounting to $1,297.72, is paidto them or expended for their benefit.
      Peorias, &c.–The Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, and Piankeshaws, who were confederated in 1854, and at that time had a total pop1ation of 259, now number 160. They occupy a reservation of 72,000 acres, adjoining the Quapaw reservation on the south and west. Under treaties made with these tribes in 1832, they removed to a tract within the present limits of Kansas, where they remained until after the treaty of 1867 was concluded with them, in which treaty provision was made whereby they obtained their present reservation. These Indians are generally intelligent, well advanced in civilization, and, to judge from the statistical reports of their agent, are very successful in their agricultural operations, raising crops ample for their own support. With the Peorias are about 40 Miamies from Kansas. They have one school in operation, with an attendance of 29 scholars. By the treaty of February 23, 1867, a limited provision is made for furnishing these confederated bands with a blacksmith, and iron and steel, at an annual expense to the Government of $1,123.29. The Secretary of the Interior holds in trust for them United States and State stocks to the amount of $124,647.94, $79,947.94 of which amount is for general purposes, and $44,700 for educational purposes. The interest on these sums is used for the object indicated in each case. They have also to their credit on the books of the Treasury, under the act of July 12, 1862, a balance amounting to $64,164.69, the interest on which sum is used for their benefit.
      Wyandotts.–The Wyandotts number at the present time 222 souls. Ten years ago there were 435. They occupy a reservation of 20,000 acres, lying between the Seneca and Shawnee reservations. This tribe was located for many years in Northwestern Ohio, whence they removed, pursuant to the terms of the treaty made with them in 1842, to a reservation within the present limits of Kansas. By the treaty made with them in 1867, their present reservation was set apart for


[Page 39]

those members of the tribe who desired to maintain their tribal organization, instead of becoming citizens, as provided in the treaty of 1855. They are poor, and, having no annuities and but little force of character are making slight progress in industry or civilization. They have been lately joined by members of the tribe who, under the treaty, accepted citizenship. These, desiring to resume their relations with their people, have been again adopted into the tribe. Inasmuch as the newcomers are decidedly superior in point of industrial attainments, education, and energy of character, it is hoped that the condition of the tribe may be improved by their accession.
      Pottawatomies.–These Indians, who formerly resided in Michigan and Indiana, whence they removed to Kansas, before going down into the Indian Territory, number about 1,600. They have under the provisions of the treaty of 1861, made with the tribe, then residing in Kansas, become citizens of the United States. By the terms of said treaty they received allotments of land and their proportion of the tribal funds, with the exception of their share of certain non-paying State stocks, amounting to $67,000, held in trust by the Secretary of the Interior for the Pottawatomies. Having disposed of their lands, they removed to the Indian Territory, where a reservation thirty miles square, adjoining the Seminole reservation on the west, had been, by the treaty of 1867, provided for such as should elect to maintain their tribal organization. It having been decided, however, by the Department, that, as they had all become citizens, there was, consequently, no part of the tribe remaining which could lay claim, under treaty stipulations, to the reservation in the Indian Territory, legislation was had by Congress at its last session–act approved May 23, 1872–by which these citizen Pottawatomies were allowed allotments of land within the tract originally assigned for their use as a tribe, to the extent of 160 acres to each head of family and to each other person twenty-one years of age, and of 80 acres to each minor. Most if not all of them are capable of taking care of themselves, and many of them are well educated, intelligent, and thrifty farmers.
      Absentee Shawnees.–These Indians, numbering 663, separated about thirty years ago from the main tribe, then located in Kansas, and settled in the Indian Territory, principally within the limits of the thirty miles square tract heretofore referred to in the remarks relative to the Pottawatomies, where they engaged in farming, and have since supported themselves without assistance from the Government. With the view of securing to them permanent homes, provision was made in the act of May 23, 1872, whereby any Indian pure or mixed blood of the Absentee Shawnees, being the head of the family, or over twenty-one years of age, who could show to the satisfaction of the Secretary off the Interior that he or she had resided continuously for the term of three years within said thirty-mile square tract, and had made substantial improvements thereon, should receive allotment of eighty acres of land, to include, so far as practicable, his or her improvements, together with an addition of twenty acres for each child under twenty-one years, belonging to the family of such Indian. Although the act of May 23, 1872, provides for individual allotments of lands indiscriminately to Pottawatomies and Absentee Shawnees within the thirty-mile square tract, yet it is intended, in making such allotments, that they shall be, so far practicable, for the former, out of lands lying south of Little River, and, for the latter, out off lands lying north of it. Since being assured of the permanency of their homes, they have entered with renewed energy upon the work of farming, and succeeded during the


[Page 40]

past summer in raising crops more than sufficient for their support for the year. They own a large number of horses and cattle. A day-school has been established for them, at present attended by 16 children. The attendance, it is expected, will soon reach 65.
      Sacs and Foxes.–The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi number at The present time 463. In 1846 they numbered 2,478. They have a reservation of 483,840 acres, adjoining the Creeks on the west and between the North Fork of the Canadian and the Red Fork of the Arkansas Rivers. They formerly occupied large tracts of country in Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri, whence they removed, by virtue of treaty stipulations, to a reservation within the present limits of Kansas. By the terms of the treaties of 1859 and 1868, all their lands in Kansas were ceded to the United States, and they were given in lieu thereof their present reservation. These Indians, once famous for their prowess in war, have not, for some years, made any marked improvement upon their former condition. Still, they have accomplished a little, under highly adverse circumstances and influences, in the way of opening small farms and in building houses, and are beginning to show some regard for their women by relieving them of the burdens and labors heretofore required of them. There is hope of their further improvement, although they are still but one degree removed from the Blanket or Breech-Clout Indians. They have one school in operation, with an attendance of only about l2 scholars. Three hundred and seventeen members of these tribes, after their removal to Kansas returned to Iowa, where they were permitted to remain, and are now, under the act of March 2, 1867, receiving their share of the tribal funds. They have purchased 419 acres of land in Tama County, part of which they are cultivating. They are not much disposed to work, however, on lands of their own, preferring to labor for the white farmers in their vicinity and are still much given to roving and hunting.
      By the treaties of November 3, 1804, October 21, 1837 October 11, 1842, and February 18, 1867 these Indians have permanent annuities, amounting to $51,000 annually, and are supplied for a limited number of years with a physician, medicine, tobacco and salt at a cost to the Government of $1,850 annually.
      Osages.–The Osages, numbering 3,956, are native to the general section of country where they now live. Their reservetrion is bounded on the north by the south line of Kansas, east by the ninety-sixth degree of west longitude, and south and west by the Arkansas River, and contains approximately 1,760,000 acres. Their location on this reservation has been affected after considerable complication. By the act of July 15, 1870, provision was made for sale of all the lands belonging to the Osages within the limits of Kansas, and for their removal across the line into the Indian Territory. In accordance with the terms of this act, a reservation was selected by them, which was supposed to be immediately west of the ninety-sixth degree of west longitude, but a large portion of it, containing in fact all the improvements made and all the really available land in the whole body, was found upon a subsequent survey to be east of it, that is, within the Cherokee country. To remedy this difficulty, Congress, by act of June 5, 1872, set apart their present reservation, with the proviso that they should allow the Kansas tribe of Indians to settle on the same tract. Owing to the unsettled condition of these Indians for several years past, and the limited amount of funds that could be used for their benefit, they have not made much progress in civilization. Having now a fixed place of abode and having large sums coming to them from the sale of their lands in Kansas,


[Page 41]

the Department sees no reason to doubt that they will in a few years become a rich and prosperous people. They still follow the chase, the buffalo being their main dependence for food. Their wealth consists in horses (of which they own not less than 12,000) and in cattle. They have, since their removal, begun farming to some extent, having already about 2,000 acres under cultivation. Their agent reports the reservation "poorly adapted for civilizing purposes," there being only one small valley of fertile soil, barely affording enough good farming-land for four thousand Indians. Having but just located, they have at present but one school in operation, with an attendance of 38 scholars. Further educational provision will be made for them at an early day. The only money these Indians have, besides the proceeds of the sale of their lands in Kansas, is the interest on $300,000, amounting annually to $15,000, which is paid to them in money, or expended for their benefit; and $3,456, being the interest on $69,120, which sum is used for educational purposes. This interest is appropriated annually, per treaties of June 2, 1825, and September 29, 1865, and Senate resolution of January 9, 1838. In addition to the item of $3,456 for educational purposes, the Secretary of the Interior holds in trust for them United States and State stocks to the amount of $41,000, the interest on which sum, amounting annually to $2,120, is also used for educational purposes.
      Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches.–These tribes, confederated under present treaty stipulations, formerly ranged over an extensive country lying between the Rio Grande and the Red River. As nearly as can be ascertained, they number as follows: Kiowas, 1,930; Comanches, 3,180 and Apaches, 380. They are now located upon a reservation secured to them by treaty made in 1867, comprising 3,549,440 acres in the southwestern part of the Indian Territory, west of and adjoining the Chickgsaw country. Wild and intractable, these Indians, even the best of them, have given small signs of improvement in the arts of life, and, substantially, the whole dealing of the Government with them, thus far, has been in the way of supplying their necessities for food and clothing, with a view of keeping them upon their reservation and preventing their raiding into Texas, with the citizens of which State they were for many years before their present establishment on terms of mutual hatred and injury. The liberality and forbearance of the Government since the treaty of 1867, when complete amnesty for the offenses of the past was extended to these Indians, even to the extent of allowing them to retain their stolen stock, have not borne the fruits expected, and it may be found necessary, according to the opinion expressed in another part of this report, to bring them to a sense of their errors by severe punishment. In the opinion of the Commissioner, the point has been reached where forbearance ceases to be virtue, Some individuals and bands have remained quiet and peaceable upon their reservations, evincing a disposition to learn the arts of life, to engage in agriculture, and to have their children instructed in letters. To these every inducement is being held out to take up land and actively commence tilling it. Thus far they have under cultivation but 100 acres, which have produced the past year good crop of corn and potatoes. The wealth of these tribes consists in horses and mules, of which they own to the number, as reported by their agent, of 16,500, a great proportion of the animals notoriously having been stolen in Texas.
      A boarding-school has been established upon this reservation, having an attendance of 35 scholars, with as the agent reports, a remarkable degree of success. It is strongly urged by Superintendent Hoag, within


[Page 42]

whose general superintendence these Indians are, that the agency be removed from its present location in the vicinity of Fort Sill, or else that the military post be removed to some other and more distant point, the reason assigned being that the influences emanating from this post tend strongly to further demoralize the Indians, even those best disposed, and to render unavailing the present efforts for their improvement.
      However, it may be said, in a word, of these Indians that their civilization must follow their submission to the Government, and that the first necessity in respect to them is a wholesome example, which shall inspire fear and command obedience. So long as four-fifths of these tribes take turns at raiding into Texas openly and boastfully bringing back scalps and spoils to their reservation, efforts to inspire very high ideas of social and industrial life among the communities of which the raiders form so large a part will presumably result in failure. These Indians, under the two treaties made with them October 21, 1867, have limited annuities, &c., (twenty-five installments still due,) as follows: For beneficial objects, $30,000, and for clothing, $26,000. A carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, engineer, physician, and teacher are also furnished them per said treaties, at a cost to the Government of $7,700 per annum. Those who remain on the reservation are also supplied with subsistence at the expense of the Government.
      Arapahoes and Cheyennes of the South.–These tribes are native to the section of country now inhabited by them. The Arapahoes number at the present time 1,500, and the Cheyennes 2,000. By the treaty of 1867, made with these Indians, a large reservation was provided for them bounded on the north by Kansas, on the east by the Arkansas River, and on the south and west by the Red Fork of the Arkansas. They have, however, persisted in a refusal to locate on this reservation; and another tract, containing 4,011,500 acres, north of and adjoining the Kiowa and Comanche reservation, was set apart for them by Executive order of August 10, 1869. By act of May 29, 1872, the Secretary of the Interior was authorized to negotiate with these Indians for the relinquishment or their claim to the lands ceded to them by the said treaty, and to give them in lieu thereof a "sufficient and permanent location" upon lands ceded to the United States by the Creeks and Seminoles in treaties made with them in 1866. Negotiations to the end proposed were duly entered into with these tribes unitedly, but, in the course of such negotiations, it has become the view of this Office that the tribes should no longer be associated in the occupation of a reservation. The Arapahoes are manifesting an increasing disinclination to follow further the fortunes of the Cheyennes, and crave a location of their own. Inasmuch as the conduct of the Arapahoes is uniformly good, and their disposition to make industrial improvement very decided, it is thought that they should now be separated from the more turbulent Cheyennes, and given a place where they may carry out their better intentions without interruption and without the access of influences tending to draw their young men away to folly and mischief. With this view, a contract, made subject to the action of Congress was entered into between the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and the delegation of the Arapahoes tribe which visited Washington during the present season, (the delegation being fully empowered thereto by the tribe,) by which the Arapahoes relinquish all their interest in the reservation granted them by the treaty of 1867, in consideration of the grant of a reservation between the North Fork of the Canadian River and the Red Fork of the Arkansas River, and extending from a point ten miles east of the ninety-


[Page 43]

eighth to near the ninety-ninth meridian of west longitude. There can be no question, I think, that the arrangement will be equally for the advantage of the Government and of the Indians. Legislation to carry into effect the provisions of the agreement will be recommended at the approaching session of Congress. Should this adjustment of the question, so far as the Arapahoes are concerned, meet the approval of Congress, separate negotiations will be entered into with the Cheyennes, with a view to obtaining their relinquishment of the reservation of 1867, and their location on some vacant tract within the same general section of the Indian Territory.
      A considerable number of the Arapahoes are already engaged in agricultural though at a disadvantage and when the question of their reservation shall have been settled, it is confidently believed that substantially the whole body of this tribe will turn their attention to the cultivation of the soil. Two schools are conducted for their benefit at the agency, having an attendance of 35 scholars. Of the Cheyennes confederated with the Arapahoes, the reports are less favorable as to progress made in industry, or dispositiou to improve their condition. Until 1867 both these tribes, in common with the Kiowas alld Comanches, were engaged in hostilities against the white settlers in Western Kansas, but since the treaty made with them in that year they have, with the exception of one small band of the Cheyennes, remained friendly, and have committed no depredations. The disposition of the Arapahoes is especially commendable. No breach of peace whatever can be charged upon them, and their influence is uniformly exerted to dissuade neighboring tribes from depredating on the whites. It is the intention of the Department at the opening of the next agricultural season to afford the Arapahoes substantial assistance in the form of stock and agricultural implements, and by breaking up land, should the question of their reservation be finally settled.
      Under the treaty of October 28, 1867, the Cheyennes and Arapahoes have limited annuities, &c., (twenty-five installments still due,) as follows: For beneficial objects, $20,000, and for clothing $14,500. Provision is also made for the employment of a physician, teacher, carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer, at a cost to the Government of $7,700. These Indians are now subsisted mainly at the expense of the Government. Wichitas, &c.–The Wichitas and other affiliated bands of Keechies, Wacoes, Towoccaroes, Caddoes, Ionies, and Delawares number 1,250, divided approximately as follows: Wichitas, 299; Keechies, 126; Wacoes, 140; Towoccaroes, 127; Caddoes, 392; Ionies, 85; Delawares, 81; These Indians, fragments of once important tribes originally belonging in Louisiana, Texas, Kansas, and the Indian Territory, were all, excepting the Wichitas and Delawares, removed by the Government from Texas, in 1859, to the "leased district," then belonging to the Choctaws and Chickasaws, where they have since resided, at a point on the Washita River near old Fort Cobb. They have no treaty relations with the Government, nor have they any defined reservation. They have always, or, at least, for many years, been friendly to the whites, although in close and constant contact with the Kiowas and Comanches. A few of them, chiefly Caddoes and Delawares, are engaged in agriculture, and are disposed to be industrious. Of the other Indians at this agency, some cultivate small patches in corn and vegetables, the work being done mainly by women, but the most are content to live upon the Government. The Caddoes rank among the best Indians of the continent, and set an example to the other bands affiliated with them worthy of


[Page 44]

being more generally followed than it is. In physique, and in the virtues-of chastity, temperance and industry they are the equals of many white communities.
      A permanent reservation should be set aside for the Indians of this agency, and, with proper assistance they would doubtless in a few years become entirely self-sustaining. In the chapter of this report containing specific recommendations for legislation to be had by Congress at its approaching session, will be found the text of an agreement between these bands and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, by which the Indians relinquish all their claims on account of lands formerly held by them, and of which they were dispossessed without their consent, and the Government on its part confirms to them the tract now in fact occupied by them. Effect should be given to this agreement by Congress at as early date as practicable. The claims relinquished have been long before Congress, and may or may not have merit, a question not here considered; but it is equally for the interest of the Government and of the Indians that these bands should be put as early as practicable in the way of self-support, a result which will be greatly forwarded by confirming to them a permanent home. But one school is in operation, with an attendance of 18 scholars. These Indians have no annuities, but an annual appropriation of $50,000 has for several years been made for their benefit. This money is expended for goods and agricultural implements, and for assistance and instruction in farming, &c.

DAKOTA, MONTANA, WYOMING, AND IDAHO

      The tribes residing in Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho are divided as follows: in Dakota, about 28,000; Montana, 30,000; Wyoming, 2,000; and Idaho, 5,000. The present temporary location of the Red Cloud agency has, however, drawn just within the limits of Wyoming a body of Indians varying from 8,000 to 9,000. who are here, and usually, reckoned as belonging in Dakota.

DAKOTA.

      The Indians within the limits of Dakota Territory are the Sioux, the Poncas, and the Arickarees, Gros Ventres, and Mandans.
      Sioux.–There are, probably, including those at the Red Cloud agency, at present temporarily located in Wyoming, about 25,000 Sioux under the care of Government at eight different agencies.
      The Yankton Sioux, numbering about 2,000, are ]ocated in the extreme southern part of the Territory, on the east side of the Missouri, about fifty miles from the town of Yankton, upon a reservation of 400,000 acres, nearly all rolling prairie, set apart for them by treaty of 1858, out of the tract then ceded by them to the United States. They have not been much inclined to work, and although there is good land within their reservation, they are poor, having still to be subsisted in a great measure by the Government. It is but due to say of the Yanktons, that, while other bands of Sioux have been hostile to the Government and its citizens, they have uniformly been friendly, even to the extent of assisting the Government against their own kindred. They are now giving considerable attention to the education of their children, having six schools in operation, with an average attendance of 366 scholars. The change in this latter respect has resulted mainly from the benevolent efforts of the missionaries of the Episcopal Church, and of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Miissions. Under a


  Forward to Pages 44-67
  NADP Homepage