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Palmer to Manypenny, 12 January 1854, in United States, Office of Indian Affairs, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880, National Archives Microcopy 234, Roll 608, NADP Document D22.
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Office Superintendent - Ind. Affrs
Dayton O.T. Janry 12th 1854

Sir
      Herewith transmit an abstract with accompanying schedules of merchandise to be purchased in the eastern markets for paying Indian annuities for the year 1855 in this Superintendency.
      No 1 is for 2nd payment of annuity to the Rogue River Tribe. This annuity is too small to afford the tribe adequate supplies. But should the Treaty of the 18th November last be ratified and appropriations made to carry it into effect, it is beleived, that with the proceeds of their own labor and the unexpended portions of the five thousand dollars appropriated in the Treaty of 10th Sept. 1853, a sufficient amt may be obtained to provide for their actual necessities and much be accomplished towards preparing them for self sustenance.
       The outlay of a few hundred dollars in the spring to purchase seed, and aid in putting in crops is greatly demanded and the appropriation referred to is thought sufficient for the object. These Indians do not all reside on the Reserve, and it will doubtless take several years to provide comfortable quarters for them all thereon. But little improvement can be expected unless they are encouraged by the residence of an Agent and farmer among them, when they may be induced to do much for themselves.


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      No 2 Second payment of annuity to Cow Creek Band
      It is contemplated that this Band will be located on the Umpqua Reserve with those treated with the 29th November last, and thus the deficiencies in their limited provision may be to some extent supplied. The addition of several families to this band gathered in from remote districts where they had been for some time residing leaves their annuity insufficient to supply them with the actual necesssaries of life. But when located with other Bands so as to realize the benefit of shops, farmers, schools &c. it will with care be sufficent connected with the proceeds of their own labor to support them comfortably. The articles for this band will probably cost nearly the entire Amount of their Annuity. Should it be sufficient however I would suggest the purchase of a few rifles and some ammunition, which they greatly need.
      In connection with this subject I would suggest the propriety of furnishing this superintendency with from four to five hundred stand of arms to be given to the various bands as circumstances may warrant in payment of annuities. In fact no species of property would be more acceptable as a first payment than arms and ammunition. The few now possessed by them are generally old and wornout, and insufficient to enable them to procure wild game upon which they must mainly for some years depend for food.
      It is highly probable that an abundant supply


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might be obtained from some of the arsenals of a style and finish suited to these Indians, regarded by the War Department as almost valuless in the Service. In the mountain districts rifles are best suited to their [illegible]; but along the coast fowling pieces or shotguns would generally be prefered. No danger need be apprehended from supplying these arms to the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains.
      No 3. Articles designed for the Chasta and Scoton Tribe and Grave Creek Band of Umpquas, treated with on the 18th day of November last. Confederating the Bands with those embraced in the Treaty of the 10th September 1853, and providing for the erection and maintenance of Smith Shops, schools, hospital, the employment of farmers, and the expenditure of $6500. in improvements, stock subsistance &c., will place all these bands in a condition much better than was possible with the limited amount offerded by the Treaty referred to. Those bands also stand in need of a few fire arms and I have accordingly entered on the list one box of rifles with ammunition. It may be proper here to state, that it was understood at the time of the treaty that in the event of an individual settling upon and cultivating any particular tract which might be designated, he was to be supplied with a gun on account of annuity, if he had none. No provision is made in this Treaty for the erection of mills as it was presumed settlers residing adjacent would erect


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such improvements. But it may ultimately be found advantageous to erect them. It would be very desirable if found practicable, to have the tools shipped in time for using them in gathering the next harvest. All goods designed for Indians use should reach our ports in April May or June, that they may be transported to the respective district during the summer months or before the commencement of the rainy season. The Chiefs and head men of these Bands greatly desire a few horses, which can be purchased in this country.
      No 4. Is for the confederated Bands of the Umpquas and Calapooias treated with on the 29th of November last. In addition to the articles embraced in the lists for other tribes, this calls for the purchase of materials for supplying the smithshop which by the Treaty with them will be paid for out of their annuity, while by the treaties with the other Bands the materials are to be paid for out of specific appropriations. To the usual materials for supplying the shop I have added materials for manufacturing their own tinware and camp equipage, and for repairing their firearms, making their plows &c. In another communication I have given my reasons at some length for adopting this policy.


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      Embraced in these lists are many articles which at certain periods might advantageously be purchased in Oregon. But the fluctuating prices and the inferior quality of the greater proportions of such goods shipped to this coast renders it too uncertain to rely on this market; besides the annuities are too small, to justify the additional tax, with percents insurance &c. of transportation.
      The article of coats I have omitted in all these lists and yet they are greatly desired by the Indians. But until permanently located on their reserves, and other escential provisions for their comfort and convenience are made, I have thought it best not to draw so heavily from their annuity by supplying this article. There are instances in which an Indian would prefer a coat to all other articles, and it might be well that a limited supply of coats, vests, hats, boots were placed at the disposal of this Office to meet such cases.

Very respectfully
Your obt servent
Joel Palmer

Superintendent Hon Geo W Manypenny
Commissioner Indn Affairs
Washington City D.C.