VIS_ICAM 40
Week-By-Week Schedule

Note: the following information is currently being updated weekly. As the history of computers
and art changes so too will this syllabus. Stay tuned for incoming updates.

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Week 1 (4/3)
Scan overview of course & Introduction
Introduction of the Instructor and TAs
A careful scan of the syllabus
Introduction to the week-by-week lecture schedule

Introduction: a brief history of mass media and mass communication systems, computers and computer art
--The primary focus of this first lecture will cover six major time periods in human history in which human communication has gone through major paradigm shifts as a result of technological innovations. These six epochs make up the history of mass media, mass communications systems.
--The rapid development in the modern world of mass media and mass communications systems has radically transformed our daily experiences of live, face to face interactions in the world into experiences brought to us through some form of mediating technology.

6 waves in the development of Mass media and mass communications systems:
1)     Invention of writing in Mesopotamia, Sumerians, 3200 BC – 1440 AD
2)    invention of the printing press, 1440 - 1850
3)    Industrial revolution in the 1850 – 1940s
4)    Electronic media & mass communication systems, 1940s to the early 1980s
5)   Introduction of personal computers on a mass sacral-- 1980s to 1993
6)  The The Internet, the WWW, CDs,File exchanges, DV tape-- 1993 to present

There are five primary influences mass media and mass communication systems have had on art and culture during these six waves of mass media and mass communicaiton systems:

1) mass media and mass communication systems changed the fundamental notion of what is art.
    FINE ART and POPULAR ART

2) mass media and mass communication systems changed the ways art is made and who is an artist
   Pop  Artist, Andy Warhol and his "Factory", 1960s
3) mass media and mass communication systems changed the way art is distributed in the culture
4) mass media and mass communication systems changed who can patronize or buy the work of artists
5) and most importantly ,mass media and mass communication systems changed the location where art is experienced
.
The effects of mass media and mass communization systems on art and culture in Cyberspace
1)
The World Wide Web continues to blur the distinction between high art and culture and popular art and culture.
2) Contemporary digital mass media continues to decentralize the art world and make available to a mass audience the consumption of art in everyday life of mediated reality.
--
Art is no longer exclusively experienced within the context of the art world of museums, galleries, theaters, movie houses, etc.
3)
Contemporary mass media, particularly, The World Wide Web puts into question the traditional notion of who is an artist and what is art.
Two waves of "globalization" and the development of a" global culture"
--The first wave of globalization happened during the Industrial Revolution
--The second wave of globalization comes with the introduction of the ultimate mass media form, the Internet.
The "digital divide", computer usage and access
http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/sections/index.cfm
Postscript to Mass Media and Mass Communication Systems
The Attack on September 11

The state of mass media and mass communication systems as of two weeks, after the terrorist attacks on the US.
http://www.cnn.com/

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson
1) Bitmapping: An Introduction Pg 1 - 41
Vannevar Bush article: "As We May Think"

REQUIRED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
The Machine That Changed the World: Episode I - Great Brains
A Chronological History of Computers, Video Games and related Technologies
UNIX Cheat Sheet
UNIX Basics and Fundamentals
Class Resource page

OPTIONAL LINKS:
Information on Cuneiform, first form of writing
Historic computer images
The Virtual museum of Computing

RECOMMENDED READING:
Illuminations, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction", Walter Benjamin
Emergence:: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities and Software, Steven Johnson

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Week 2 (4/10)
A LIVE MIX OF COMPUTER/ART HISTORY
Review of last week's lecture
Brief intro: vertical thinking, lateral thinking
Screening of The Machine that Changed the World: Great Brains
Main points reiterated from video
Additional history of computers
and the human computer interface from the 1940s to the present
--MIT's research for SAGE ("Semi-Automatic Ground Environment" -- 1950s): graphical display.
--Ivan Sutherland's "Sketchpad" program (1962) -- popularized the idea of controlling a computer by manipulating graphical objects on the computer screen. Interactive graphical input and output.
--Douglas Engelbardt and collegues develop main principles of modern GUI (Graphical User Interface) (1960s) -- mouse control, multiple windows, hypertext, the use of text and graphics within one computer document, word processing.
--
Ted Hoff developes the microprocessor. "Intel Corporation introduces the Model 4004 microprocessor; the first "computer on a chip". Originally designed to drive a desktop calculator, the 4004 will provide the computing power for the Pioneer 10 spacecraft which will launch on Friday, March 3, 1972."
--Alan Kay's team at Xerox Park (1970s): Alto workstation - first personal computer. Alto computer uses bit-mapped graphics and is connected to a network.
--Apple's Macintosh (1984): GUI becomes commercial.
--Tim Berners-Lee begins working on the Web prototype (1989)
--Mosaic, the first graphics-based Web browser is released (1993)
--1997 the HTML 3.2 specification was adopted as the World Wide Web Consortium recommendation.


Four main functions performed by modern computers
1. Calculation (mathematical and logical).
2. Communication: transfer of text, images, and other data among computers connected by a network.
3. Control: operation of other machines, such as telephone switching networks, automobile engines, motors, etc.  –-Professor Manovich
4. Add to this the function of the computer to produce cultural artifacts, art being one of them
Six generations of computing
The mainframe

The minicomputer
The microcomputer (PC)
The Internet and the Web
Pervasive computing
The changing economics of computing

Assigned readings, a discussion
--Brief introduction to assigned reading "As We May Think", Vanevar Bush (I will discuss
this article in greater detail in my next lecture). Link to Vannevar Bush article: "As We May Think"

(this links to a page with my annotations of the text)
--Interface Culture” Pg. 1-42, Steven Johnson
Current and emerging trends in computing particularly relevant for the arts and culture
1. Convergence of computers, communication and television industries.
2. Computer as a node on a network. It becomes irrelevant whether programs and data are stored on a local computer or on a network.
3. Computer as a metamedium: a machine which can be used to acquire, manipulate, store, distribute and access all media forms (text, images, video, film, sound, music, virtual three-dimensional spaces).”  –Professor Manovich
Hypertext and html defined
Example of html artwork by Mark Amerika
Hpertextual Consciousness 1.0, Mark Amerika

1st Project introduced, examples of previous student projects presented

IN-CLASS SCREENINGS AND LINKS:
Video: The Machine that Changed the World; Great Brains
Links: The Machine That Changed the World: Episode I - Great Brains

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
"As We May Think" Vannevar Bush (this links to a page with my annotations of the text)
Interface Culture
, Stephen Johnson
1) Bitmapping Pg 1 - 42 2) The Desktop, 3) Windows, Pg. 42 - 105


REQUIRED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
The Machine That Changed the World: Episode III: The Paperback Computer
Hpertextual Consciousness 1.0, Mark Amerika

Text Art Sites:
http://www.yhchang.com/
http://www.0100101110101101.org/
http://www.grammatron.com/

ASCI Art Sites:
http://www.users.totalise.co.uk/~wardog/html/about.html
http://download.cnet.com/downloads/0-10077-601-5709912.html
http://www.mosascii.com

Project 1
Hypertext Artwork: A Personal history of your first-time experiences with digital technology.
Due Week 3

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Week 3
(4/17)
Booting up I: a history of the human computer interface and current trends for the development of the interface

Brief review of last week's lecture
Short history and development of the GUI and human-computer interface: 1943 to 1993
--Precursors to the contemporary GUI (Graphical User Interface): Vannevar Bush: "Memex" , theoretical machine, Memex is explained in "As We May Think" an article he wrote in 1945, Memex, although never built, could be considered the precursor to the modern personal computer workstation and many of its peripherals. I will discuss the key points of the article during my lecture.
Screening: The Machine that Changed the World: The Paperback Computer (video excerpts)
Additional history
of the GUI and human-computer interface with notes from
assigned readings from "Interface Culture"
1) Bitmapping Pg 1 - 42 2) The Desktop, 3) Windows, Pg. 42 - 105
* MIT's research for SAGE ("Semiautomatic Ground Environment" -- 1950s) graphical display.
* Ivan Sutherland's "Sketchpad" program (1962) popularized the idea of controlling a computer by manipulating graphical objects on the computer screen. Interactive graphical input and output.
* Douglas Engelbardt and colleagues develop main principles of modern GUI (Graphical User Interface) (1960s) -- mouse control, multiple windows, hypertext, the use of text and graphics within one computer document, word processing.
Doug Englebart’s GUI
Bitmapping: cartography, or mapping, of the binary code.  An electron’s off and on states mirrored on the screen.
*Direct, visual manipulation of the bitmap. Visual manipulation of data rather than command line code
*Rather than manipulate files with words and commands, you simply used a mouse.
*To manipulate the bitmap with the pointer--which was a metaphorical stand-in for the user within the data space.
*Most of today’s innovations come from Englebart’s invention of information space: cyberspace, surfing, navigating, webs, desktops, windows, dragging, dropping, point and click.
Three significant developments happen around 1969, 1970 and 1971 that would lay the foundation for the Internet revolution and the development of what Steven Johnson has dubbed "Interface Culture."
1 ) In 1969 ARPANET the precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was a large wide-area network, WAN, created by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA). Established in 1969, ARPANET served as a testbed for new networking technologies, linking many universities and research centers. The first two nodes that formed the ARPANET were UCLA and the Standard Research Institute, followed shortly thereafter by the University of Utah.
ARPANET is an example of a WAN, a Wide Area Network.
2) In 1971 - 1972 is e-mail is developed. Ray Tomlinson develops a program for sending messages between computer systems. He designates the @ symbol to separate the user name from the computer name in the address.
3) In 1971 Ted Hoff develops the microprocessor. 1971 main circuitry of the computer was put on a chip.  Mass produced the microprocessors would eventually became
Some terms related to thehistory of the interface:
LAN: Local-Area-Network
A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any stance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area-network, or, WAN
WAN: Wide-Area-Network or a computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area-networks, LANs. Computer users connected to WAN are typically using a public network of some kind like the telephone systems, cable systems or wireless and satellite transmissions. The largest WAN in existence is, of course, the Internet.
LAWN: Local-Area-Wireless-Network A type of local-area-network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. Mac's Airport system is an example of a LAWN.
XEROX PARC and the development of the GUI
--Alan Kay's team at Xerox Park (1970s): Alto workstation - first personal computer. Alto computer uses bit-mapped graphics and is connected to a network.
--In 1981 Warner Amex and CompuServe offer electronic mail to cable television users in Columbus, Ohio.
--1984 The DOT-COM is born. The Domain Name system is introduced, classifying network addresses by extensions like.com
--Apple's Macintosh (1984): GUI becomes commercial.
--SOFTWARE REVOLUTION
 --Bill Gates and Microsoft (the term Microsoft is used in William Gibson’s novel, “Neuromancer”)
--Microsoft is based on something that is hard to see, the application.
--Gates is selling codified thought.
--Building edifices of code.
--Novel tasks are taken on each time software is developed.
--New generation of computer users do not care how it works, but rather, what they can do with it. See it like a pencil and paper.
--The computer is not a machine at all but a new medium.
Principles of modern Graphical User Interface (GUI):
1. Visual representation of concepts
2. Allow the user direct manipulation of representations
3. Based on metaphors from familiar reality (a book, a desk, an office, a city, a shopping mall, etc.)
Problems with the current GUI interface:

1. Not intuitive -- learning required
2. Can't handle the complexity of today's computing (example: too many files to find what you want)
3. Next generation of users is growing with computers -- therefore it is counterproductive to create interfaces which imitate old technologies
Development of the Internet, Cyberspace and the interface of "Interface Culture"
* Tim Berners-Lee begins working on the Web prototype (1989)
* Mosaic, the first graphics-based Web browser is released (1993)
* In the year 2002, 9.8 billion emails are send each day.

* Mass communication systems take an exponential leap and change the way we communicate.
*E-mail has become an entire personal information management environment, coming full circle back to
Vannevar Bush's design for Memex.
Some emerging trends in human-computer interfaces:
Professor Manovich
1. Making interface invisible: VR (Virtual Reality)
2.Using AI (artificial intelligence) for more active communication between a user and a computer including the use of natural language and face expressions. Affective computing: using all the senses and not just vision.
3. Agents
Agent as an anthropomorphised servant
Agent as a companion in cyberspace
Agent as the interface
4. Computer Augmented Reality. Virtual Reality vs. Augmented Reality
5. Web Browser as an interface; close integration between the environment of the local machine and the Internet
6. Ubiquitous computing, smart objects, information appliances--from desktop into the world.
Artist as an interface designer? Examples of how artists critique existing interfaces and offer alternative visions:

IN-CLASS SCREENINGS AND LINKS:
The Machine that Changed the World: The Paperback Computer
http://praystation.com/
http://www.jodi.org/
http://www.archimuse.com/mw98/beyondinterface/
http://www.whitney.org/bitstreams/
http://stunned.org/
Mark Dagget, “DeskSwap”

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson
4) Links, Pg. 106 - 136
David Ross, Net.art in the Age of Digital Reproduction

RELATED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
Beginners Guide to HTML
Quick Reference Guide to HTML
Eastgate Hyper Fiction
Feminist Hypertext
Virtual Reality: http://archive.museophile.sbu.ac.uk/3d/#VR
http://praystation.com/
http://www.jodi.org/
http://www.digibodies.org/
http://www.archimuse.com/mw98/beyondinterface/
http://www.whitney.org/bitstreams/
http://stunned.org/
Mark Dagget, “DeskSwap”

Project 1 Due
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Week 4
(4/24)
Booting up II: hypertext, multimedia, hypermedia (interactive multimedia),the Internet cyberspace and virtual worlds
Brief review of last week's lecture
Hypertext:
hyper text markup  language
--Hypertext is a special type of hyperlinked database system, invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s in which objects--text, pictures, music, programs, and so on--can be creatively linked to each other.
--“Hypertext refers to text on a computer that is not arranged linearly or sequentially. Users do not have to follow a predetermined path to use the information; they can jump from one topic to another at will.”
Examples
Mark Amerika, “Hypertextual Consciousness
Hyperliterature
: http://www.eastgate.com/
Storyspace
Multimedia
--In a general sense, multimedia consists of the use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation and sound in an integrated way.
--Multimedia refers to a computer program which incorporates more than one type of media: text, graphics, photographs, sound, video. Etc. The program can be interactive or non-interactive.
Examples:
"Inertia" Student work form the Art Center College of Design (CD-ROM)
Hypermedia (Interactive Multimedia)
--Hypermedia: hypertext + multimedia. Hypermedia is a hyperlinked program which incorporates more than one type of media.
--The World Wide Web is the best known example of a hypermedia system.

Examples:
"Memory Media" Michele S Shauf 1993 (CD-ROM)
Keith Piper: “Relocating the Remains” (CD-ROM)
Nonie Neumark, “Shock in the Ear”, 1998 (CD-ROM)
VRML
VRML is short for Virtual Reality Modeling Language. VRML is specification for displaying three-dimensional objects on the WWW. It is a kind of 3-D equivalent of HTML. Files written in VRML have a .vrl extension (short for world). To view these files, you need a VRML browser or a VRML plug-in to a Web browser.
Examples:
VRML as Art
Virtual Galaria
Distributed computing: A key component/concept of hypermedia is the term “distributed computing” which is a type of computing in which different components and objects which make up an application can be located, or distributed, on different computers.
--Another name for Distributed computing is Internet Computing.
Examples:
"Seti@home" The Search For Extraterrestrial Inelegance
Distributed Computing Projects

The Internet and the World Wide Web
For a comprehensive history of the Internet and World Wide Web I refer you to this link: http://www.isoc.org/internet-history/brief.html - Origins
Internet:
 
Generally speaking, the Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers.
--Tim Berners-Lee begins working on the Web prototype (1989)
--Mosaic, the first graphics-based Web browser is released (1993)
Examples:
The example of the Internet is the Internet I am on right now.
World Wide Web
A system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents, one of which you are all very familiar with now, HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). This language supports links to other documents as well as graphics, audio, and video files.. Web Browsers make it easy to access the WWW.
Examples:
Artist as an interface designer? Examples of how artists critique
existing interfaces and offer alternatives:
http://praystation.com/
http://www.archimuse.com/mw98/beyondinterface/
http://www.whitney.org/bitstreams/
http://stunned.org/

Browsers
--Web Browser is an interface mediates the environment of the local machine and the Internet.

Examples of Alternative Web Browsers:

I/O/D 4: 'The Web Stalker"
http://www.netomat.net/

Cyberspace and Virtual Worlds (VR)

Cyberspace: History of the Concept
--The word, cyberspacehas etimological roots in the term, “cybernetics”, which was coined by Norber Weiner in 1943. Cybernetics, originally, consisted of the study of biological and artificial control systems. Cybernetics combines the disciplins of computer science, social philosophy, and epistemology.
--The term “Cyberspace” was coined by the science fiction writer, William Gibson in his
cyberpunk novel of 1983, “Neuromancer.”

Examples:
A quote from the place in the novel where Gibson first uses the term "cyberspace" and also the "matrix
--Originally, the meaning of cyberspace in the 1980s -- early 1990s was a collaborative (shared), networked (distributed), three-dimensional virtual world.

Virtual Worlds (VR)
--Virtual Reality: An artificial environment created with computer hardware and software and presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels like a real environment.
Examples:
Char Davies (Canada). "Osmose." (1995). (Click on Gallery and select "Osmose")
Immersence.com
Immersive environments, a short chronology
--1945 Vannevar, in the article, "As We May Think," At the end of the article, Bush prefigures some of the basic elements of the interface for entering a virtual world and immersive environments.
--1965 Ivan Sutherland, the pioneer of computer graphics, saw a vision of the future of VR, immersive environments. His program, “Sketchpad” was the beginning of graphical, kinetic,immersive computer environments.
--U.S. Military developes one of the first virtual reality systems, a video screen and model-based flight simulator.
--By the 1970s, computer-generated graphics replace videos and models. These flight simulations were operating in real time, very primitive VR. In 1979, the military experimented with head-mounted displays.

--By the early 1980s, better software, hardware, and motion-control platforms
.
--1984 NASA uses screens from Radio Shack's LCD Pocket TV for the first low cost commercial VR hardware and software.
--After this, Virtual Reality takes off, exponential increase in research and development of VR
--In 1983 Jaron Lanier's VPL. VPL was one of the first companies to start building equipment for Virtual Reality. One of the first things they built was the DataGlove(TM).
--1985 Dr. Henry Ruchs, UNC, Chapel Hill
Created a simulated environment and the tracking devices to put you theirin. Inside that world. Instead of nobs and rotators, you simply just walking around.
--
Presently Cyberspace, VR and Immersive Worlds are moving in the direction of high rez, full immersion through greater prostheticization of the body for interfacing with Virtual Worlds and the inclusion.
Examples:
Thomas DeFanti, co-developer of the CAVE and director, University of Illinois at Chicago's Electronic Visualization Laboratory. "In the CAVE, you are no longer on the outside looking in but on the inside looking out."
Early multi-user online graphical virtual worlds. Examples:
Habitat -- "many-player online virtual environment" (mid 1980s)
SIMNET (Simulation Network) -- many-user 3D military simulator (1980s --)

The Palace

Active Worlds
John Bruneau's "Any3 Letters.com" (Quicktime)
Sheldon Brown Mi Casa Tu Casa
Time permitting, screening of excerpts from "Synthetic Pleasures"

Brief review of assigned reading
Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson
4) Links, Pg. 106 - 136 Posted Notes

David Ross, Net.art in the Age of Digital Reproduction

Note: the assigned online article by David Ross will be discussed in the context of lecture number 6, Electronic Metamorphosis: old media into new—which means that it should be read next week in peroration for week 6.

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
TAZ "The Temporary Autonomous Zone", Hakim Bey
The Virtual Barrio @ The Other Frontier Guillermo Gomez-Pena
Introduction to net.art by Alexei Shulgin and Nathalie Bookchin
Culture Jamming

RELATED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
http://www.andrethegiant.com/left.html

Electronic Civil Disobedience
Next 5 Minutes
Opperation Re-information
Spoof Web Ads
http://microsoftedu.com/
CTA
2600.com
Cult of the Dead Cow
indymedia.com
Free Speech TV
Zapatista
MTAA
Market Research
Culture Jamming
BURN
Negativeland

OPTIONAL LINKS:
Patrick Lichty, Grasping at Bits: Intellectual Property in the Digital Age
What Color is the Net
Temple of Confessions

Second project
The main component of this project will be to create a website that consists of a hypermap, if you will, that traces your journey through the interconnected geographies of real space and virtual space.
Due week 6

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Week 5 (5/1)

Jacking in: Culture Jamming and the Future of the Interface
Precursors to contemporary culture jamming
--The basis of culture jamming is to bring about a change, (positive or negative) in a part of one's culture. This cultural reconfiguration is brought about by anyone, artist or not, who attempts to change the status quo, the accepted norm, "the way things should be done," the dominant culture's way. This change in a culture is brought about by an individual or a group that is proposing (often times in the form of a written manifesto) an alternative to a mainstream, dominant culture's production, distribution and consumption of its cultural artifacts.
Culture, Nature, Machines and historical development of the concept of Progress
--Culture Jamming, or radical reconfiguring of culture through some form of action, is connected to the notion of progress and the advancement of mechanized, machine-based cultures.
--Around 1750, at the beginning of the industrial revolution, a major paradigm shift from a world view controlled by God/Christ to a secular world/universe controlled by Science/Technology.
Dystopias VS Utopias
--From the Industrial revolution onward we see a multitude of CULTURE JAMMERS setting up two camps: Utopianists and Distopianists, which consisted of artists, writers, philosophers, political revolutionaries, crackpot sociologists, psychopaths and many others putting forth their views on the future that technology would bring about in the modern world.

Precursors to Contemporary Culture Jamming
LUDDITES
: One of the first distopianist/utopianist Culture Jammers would most certainly be Ned Ludd. Around 1779, Mr. Ludd, an English laborer baldly proclaimed his disgust and distrust of technology by destroying textile machinery. Mr Ludd’s actions sparked an anti technology wave among British workers who, between 1811 and 1816, rioted and destroyed labor-saving textile machinery that they thought would diminish their chances of employment.
--Today we still use the term, luddite to describe technophobes and anyone who opposes technology and its claim to progress.
ROMANTICISM: a movement in the early 19th century culture against earlier rationalism, Classicism and mechanization. It sought to elevate the fantastic, the sublime and the pleasurable. It asserts the primacy of the individual’s experience and the self-conscious isolation of the artist after the fall of patronage.
ROMANTICISM
was essentially a revolt against the increasing mechanization and industrialization of life and the control the state and employers had over the workers.

ROMANTICISM:
an idealization of nature, picturesque, love of nostalgia mystery and drama, an awe of nature.
--a political support for liberty, and opposition to and fear of industrialism.
IMAGINATION: the subjectivity of the artist takes on an almost sacred character. The imagination creates a sense of newness and liberation to the artist’s soul.
IMAGINATION: the term was coined in the early 19th century by the French poet and critic Charles Baudelaire, who used it to describe the Romantic artist at the “center of the world”.

Early Culture Jammers, 1850 - 1970
Today's culture jamming actions that are happening in cyberspace have their roots in late 19th century and early 20th century avant garde art and the Modernist movement.
MODERNISM: An artistic and literary movement loosely of the period 1850 to 1970 that was characterized by an attempt to break with traditional and academic ties to the classical and Renaissance worlds and produce work that reflected an industrialized, urban, politicized world that was characterized by change not tradition.
MODERNISM:  Characterized by change and progress, where successive avant-garde movements, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Dada, Surrealism, Expressionism, etc overthrow their predecessors.”
AVANT GARDE: A French military term that literally means “advance guarde,” the scouting party in a military campaign that explores the unknown territory ahead of the main body of troops. 
AVANT GARDE
: art that deliberately overturns conventions, traditions or common practices in favor of something new.

BOURGEOISIE: middle class. In Marxist theory, the social group opposed to the proletariat in the class struggle.

These characteristics are hallmarks of MODERNISM and AVANT-GARDE ART:
FRAGMENTATION,  SIMULTANEITY,  DISSOLUTION OF FORMS, BROKEN COLOR,  COLLAGE,  MONTAGE,  SHREDDED IMAGES,  RANDOMNESS,  THE USE OF CHANCE TO COMPOSE,  NON LINEAR EVENTS AND STRUCTURES,  INTERACTIVITY,  REAL, LIVED EXPERIENCE THAT IS NOT REPRESENTED,  THE USE OF NOISE IN MUSIC,   A-TONAL MUSIC,  ABSTRACTION OR NON REPRESENTATIONAL ART,  PLURALITY OF MEANINGS,  OVERT CYNICISM,   THE USE OF IRONY, PARODY, COMEDY, HUMOR,  SCATOLOGICAL REFERENCES,   PROFANE GESTURES

“FUTURISM: Italian avant-garde art movement launched in 1909 when Filippo Tommaso Marinettie published his “Futurist Manifesto’ of “incendiary violence” in the Parisian Daily newspaper, Le Figaro. The first futurist manifesto was a direct attack on the established values of the painting and literary academics.
--Italian Futurism was born in the rebellion of young intellectuals, mostly in Milan, Italy, who were fed up with stagnated culture of 19th century Italy.

DADA: a Western European artistic and literary movement (1916-1922) that sought to discover an authentic reality by demolishing traditional culture and aesthetic/artistic forms.
DADA: during World War I, an international group of young artists and writers fled to Zurich, in neutral Switzerland.
DADA:
was in reaction to the horror of the War and the onslaught of new technology, as well as to the “suffocating”  aesthetics of Futurism and Cubism.

DADA and the CABARET VOLTAIRE: the origins of the DADA movement began in 1916 at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich with anti-art, politically charged anarchistic performances by this international group of artists.

Contemporary Culture Jammers, 1970s - present
POST-MODERNISM, late 1970s - 1990s:
--It differs from Modernism by an aggressive willingness to borrow from and combine with past styles of art rather than constantly searching for “the next step” in a logical evolution of styles.”
POST-MODERNISM: rejection of the idea of originality and the notion of artist as creative genius working in isolation. POST-MODERNISM: maintains the avant-garde tradition of experimentation and embraces the chaotic elements of Modernism such as fragmentation, ephemerally and discontinuity, but rejects the Modernist notion of creating a totally new form.
POST-MODERNISM: the tendency to challenge the dominance of painting as the privileged form of art. No one style or way of working is any better than any other, all are equal in value.
Some formal elements of POST-MODERN art:
PASTICHE
: “a work executed in the style of another artist. An effective pastiche is not an exact copy but combines elements of several of an artist’s works into a new composition.
IRONY
: to express something different from and often opposite to the literal meaning; Incongruity between what might be expressed and what actually occurs.
APPROPRIATION
: to take (appropriate) someone else’s work and incorporate it into one’s own work.
SELF REFERENTIALITY:
art that  refers to itself and nothing more.
The New Avant Garde

1. "The old media avant-garde of the 1920s came up with new forms, new ways to represent reality and new ways to see the world. The new media avant-garde is about new ways of accessing and manipulating information. Its techniques are hypermedia, databases, search engines, data mining, image processing, visualization, simulation. "
2. "The new avant-garde is no longer concerned with seeing or representing the world in new ways but rather with accessing and using in new ways previously accumulated media. In this respect new media is post-media or meta-media, as it uses old media as its primary material."

Manifestos of Culture Jammers both positive and negative
Ted Kasinski, "Unibomber Manifesto"
On-line Luddism Index
http://www.syntac.net/hoax/ludd.php
Hakim Bey T.A,Z Ontological Anarchy and Poetic Terrorism
Hakim Bey Culture Jammer's Encyclopedia http://www.syntac.net/hoax/bey.php
Kesey and the Merry Pranksters
Merry Pranksters history
Examples
"Media Burn" by Ant Farm
(video excerpt) and Culture Jamming http://www.levity.com/markdery/culturjam.html
http://rtmark.com/

Paper Tiger TV

GuAlexei Sulgin and Nathalie Bookchin Introduction to net.art by Alexei Shulgin and Nathalie Bookchin
Bureau of Inverse Technology
Guillermo Gomez Pena, The Virtual Barrio @ The Other Frontier
Electronic Civil Disobedience

Contemporary Representations of technological Utopias and Distopias
Examples:
An appearance by the Prophet of @ (aka, toni la bone) to discuss the end of the world
--Millennium meltdown:Y2K Hyst
eria; e Commerce, gold rush and bust days.
Examples:
Excerpts from Tony La Bone's From Here To LA

Reading excerpt from Neal Stephenson's novel, Snow Crash

“Snow Crash is a novel by Neal Stephenson about a future world in a state of confusion and decay. It is a revolutionary story because it is decidedly cyberpunk in its form and so addresses our present concerns about the world's technological and social progression as we catapult into the twenty-first century.”
--Hackers, Hackboys and Hactivists
Examples:
Mark PaulineSRL Survival Research Labs

Movies Representing utopia and distopia
Since its birth more than a hundred years ago, Hollywood has exploited the notion of progress depicting countless examples of utopia and distopia
Distopian: Fritz Lang's "Metropolis"
Distopia: “1984” the oppressor film based on the novel by George Orwell
Distopia: “Terminator I and II
Distopia/Utopia: Robo Cop
Distopian: “The Day After”
Utopian: “The Jetsons”
Utopian: “Star Trek”
Utopian/Distopian: Steven Speilburg’s new movie, “A.I”
And on and on and on the list goes for the two sides.

Examples:
"Blade Runner" (Excerpt from Video)
" Metropolis
" Fritz Lang 1935 (Exceprt From Video)

A challenge to act up and culture jam: protest, pranks and performance art
Protest
San Diego Independent Media Center
Linux VS Microsft for open source. excerpted from the New York Times Ad for Linux

and a Microsoft ad for "Visual Studio
"
--Recent protests
Pranks
--V Vale on Pranks

The Prank Institute
Kansas City Art Institute Student Pranks (stories)
Sheppard Fairey
Andre The Giant has a Posse
Performance Art:
--A
time-based multi-media art form that is done live and, typically, the performers are not acting but are themselves.
--In performance art, the artist’s body is often times the medium and in many cases the audience participates in the action which is planned but not often rehearsed and can involve chance.

--Performance art, because it is a public art form, has historically been the medium artist gravitate when they want to make a direct statement or protest in the culture.
Example:
Burning Man Event


READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson
Conclusion, Pg. 206 - 242
Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson
5) Text, Pg. 138 - 172
The Digital Revolution is a Revolution of Random Access

RELATED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
History of Net Art I
Introduction to net.art by Alexei Shulgin and Nathalie Bookchin
Duckywaddles Emporium Gallery, Encenitas
"Little Movies", Lev Manovich
Dial Tones: Telesymphony
Praystation
Franklin Furnace
Screenshots
http://www.stephen.com/mondrimat/
http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/simong/installation/media/Installation.mov

http://www.sissyfight.com/

Membots
Dial Tones, A Telephony
FOSSIL MEDIA, Radio and Internet Broadcast
Gamasutra
Bit Screen

American Museum of the Moving Image
Lev Manovich, “Little Movies”

OPTIONAL LINKS:
David Ross, Net.art in the Age of Digital Reproduction
Why Have there been no great Net Artists? by Steve Dietz

_____________________________________________________________________________

Week 6 (5/8)
Electronic M e t a m o r p h o s i s old analogue media transformed into new d_i_g_i_t_a_l M e d i a
I) Static art forms
II) Time-based art form

Background information on the transformation from analogue art forms to digital
art forms:
--To understand how the transformation from analogue art forms to digital media art forms has come about, some background information is needed. This background information will cover two key areas:
1) the influence that science and technology have had on art since the Industrial Revolution.
2)
the influences mass media has had on the creation of art and the distribution and access to art and cultures around the world.

1) the influence that science and technology have had on art since the Industrial Revolution.
--The appearance in Modern art of nonlinear structures, randomness, simultaneity and chance

--Technological and scientific innovations artists were influenced by at around 1900
--Relativity In 1905 Albert Einstein proposes his theory of Relativity as an alternative to Newtonian physics.
--Simultaneity
The the technological innovations during the industrial revolution radically changed our sense of time and space and brought about the experience of simultaneity, Specific technologies created the ability to experience multiple events in time and space. The list below are some of those innovations:
--1876 the telephone was invented, the wireless telegraph, bicycle
--1877 Thomas Edison’s phonograph
--1880 the light bulb is invented
--Ford automobile was invented
--1884 the steam turbine
--1888 Kodak box camera invented
--1889 Eiffel Tower erected for the Paris World’s Fair
--1889 x-ray machine invented
--1892 diesel engine
--1895 movie camera
--1903 first powered flight by the Wright Brothers
--1905 Einstein’s theory of relativity
--1909 first flight over the English Channel

Psychoanalysis and dreams
--In  1897 Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung are developing the science of psychoanalysis and different theories of the unconscious and the role of dreams and non-logical parts of the human psyche.
Modernism, the Avant Garde and Post Modernism
--From the turn of the century up to the present, artists, writers, musicians, dancers, playwright and others increasingly engage in the creation of art works which abandoned the linear, logical and predictable blueprint of telling a story that has a beginning, middle and end in favor of relative structures and experimental story telling forms.
Recall from last week’s lecture the hallmarks of the avant garde artists, modern and post modernism FRAGMENTATION,  SIMULTANEITY,  DISSOLUTION OF FORMS, BROKEN COLOR,  COLLAGE,  MONTAGE,  SHREDDED IMAGES,  RANDOMNESS,  THE USE OF CHANCE TO COMPOSE,  NON LINEAR EVENTS AND STRUCTURES,  INTERACTIVITY,  REAL, LIVED EXPERIENCE THAT IS NOT REPRESENTED,  THE USE OF NOISE IN MUSIC,   A-TONAL MUSIC,  ABSTRACTION OR NON REPRESENTATIONAL ART,  PLURALITY OF MEANINGS,  OVERT CYNICISM,   THE USE OF IRONY, PARODY, COMEDY, HUMOR,  SCATOLOGICAL REFERENCES,   PROFANE GESTURES, PASTICHE, IRONY, APPROPRIATION: SELF REFERENTIALITY
Some non –linear strategies used by artists in the past and present.
Chance, Indeterminacy: Simultaneity, Randomness: Irony: Appropriation

2) the influences mass media has had on the creation of art, distribution and access to art and cultures around the world.
A change of venue: mass media revisited, new venues for art and culture
Examples:
Franklin Furnace
Whitney Museum of Art, NYC
http://hotwired.lycos.com/rgb/archive/
Rhizome

Bit Screen
The change of venue from the "industrial age" of analogue art being displayed in galleries and museums has given way to new "information age" mass media venues for artists to show their work, specifically: radio, television, computers, CD ROM and digital and online for displaying artists' work.

From Lecture 1 on Mass Media
--Six  waves of mass media
1)      Invention of writing in Mesopotamia, Sumerians, 3200 BC – 1440 AD
2)     invention of the printing press, 1440 - 1850
3)     Industrial revolution in the 1850 – 1940s (photograph, movies, sound recording, the telephone, the telegraph, lithography, printing press, the daily newspapers
4)     Electronic media & mass communication systems, 1940s to the early 1980s
5)     The introduction of home computers on a mass scale. 1980s to 1993
6)     The Internet, cyberspace/Interface culture, 1993 to present
There are five primary influences mass media and technology have had on access
to art and cultures around the world.

1) changed the fundamental notion of what is art.
2) mass media changed the ways art is made
3) the way it is distributed in the culture

4) who can patronize or buy the work of artists
5) and most importantly, where art is experienced
The effects of mass media in cyberspace
1)      The World Wide Web continues to blur the distinction between high art and culture and low art or popular culture.
2)     Contemporary digital mass media continues to decentralize the art world and make available to a mass audience the consumption of art in everyday life of mediated reality. --Art is no longer exclusively experienced within the context of the art world of museums, galleries, theaters, movie houses, etc.
3)     Contemporary mass media, particularly, The World Wide Web puts into question the traditional notion of who is an artist, what is art and where art is experienced.

First and second waves of Globalization of cultures of the world as a result of mass media

All media into one: analogue to digital
--From the earliest history of the personal computer and the GUI one can see a transformation of traditional, static and time-based analogue art mediums such as photograph, painting, drawing, graphic design, illustration, architectural drafting, music, sound art, cinema/film, video art, performance art, animation, and others. going through a metamorphosis and evolving into hybrid computer/digital mediums:

A to D to A: what is Digital and Analogue art?

Electronic metamorphosis I: Static art forms
--A brief chronology of the metamorphosis: older, static, analogue art forms transformed into digital art forms.
painting, drawing, graphic design, photography, printmaking, et al.

Examples:
Screenshots
Joe DeLap”s Mouse drawings
http://www.stephen.com/mondrimat/
Piet Mondrian Paintings on the Web
Christine Icam, Digital Portraits (Video)
Alternative Art Gallery and Museum Spaces for Static Art forms
Whitney Museum of Art, NYC
Franklin Furnace
Ducky Waddles Emporium Gallery Encenitas
Good description of the interface/web/museum connections
http://www.archimuse.com/mw98/beyondinterface/bi_fr.html
http://on1.zkm.de/netCondition.root/netcondition/start/language/default

Electronic metamorphosis II: the transformation of analogue, time-based art forms into digital, time-based art forms
--The appearance in Modern art of nonlinear structures, randomness, simultaneity and chance
Moving Image

Film
Examples:
Moving image innovations during the industrial revolution
Lumiere Brothers films

--The movie camera and cinema provided a time-based representation of the experience of simultaneity in modern life and also utilized nonlinear narrative structures.
--Film represented motion and time and also a view of the past. In a film time can stop, jump foreword, go backwards. Editing techniques, developed later,  expanded, compressed or nonlinear time through parallel editing, split frames, flashbacks and juxtaposition through montage.
--Films could be shot anywhere in the world and screened in different countries than its origin, thereby contributing to the first wave of globalization.
Digital Cinema
Examples:

Bit Screen

"Little Movies", Lev Manovich
Adriene Jenick " Mauve Desert"
(CD-ROM "translation")
--Digital cinema advances all the above mentioned techniques of analogue cinema and has launched, via CD-ROM and the www, a new form of interactive cinema which explores the possibilities of interactive narrative and a range of experimental forms such as nonlinear structuring of narratives and story telling.
--Digital cinema can be edited on non-linear editing software, such as Final Cut Pro and Media 100.
--Non-linear editing systems make possible the nonlinear narrative structures just mentioned.
--Digital Cinema can be interactive, allowing the viewer participation in a story,
choosing different paths through the narrative space and interact with the characters.
Television
Examples:
TELEVISION: tele from the Greek word meaning far + vision, hence, vision from afar.
--With the introduction of Television on a mass scale, for the first time in Western history, the primary source of culture-building images is located within the home itself.
--Broadcast Televison
Web television
Examples:
--With the introduction of the Personal Computer, for the second time in Western history, the primary source of where one could experience parts of their culture is located within the home itself. The first time was broadcast TV.
Two differences between Broadcast TV and Web TV
1) The significant difference between conventional TV and Web TV is the element of interactivity with Web TV.
2) Broadcast TV is based on the one-point-to-many model (one transmitter transmitting to many receivers).
Web TV, because of digital interactivity, is a many-points-to-many model (many transmitters transmitting and receiving from each other.

Video art
from the Latin word meaning to see

Examples:

VIDEO:
A Chronology of Vidoe art and Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI), a distributor of Video Art for thirty years.

Kristine Diekman "Drift to Dust", single channel video tape
Nam June Paik "Edited for TV"

Video Art: as an art form began in the late 1960s when portable video cameras (PortaPacks) became available on a consumer level, thus making it available to artists.
Video Art
: is a time-based electronic art form that uses the video camera, video signal processors, video projectors and monitors (TV) as the primary medium for the production and presentation of artists’ work.
Video Art
going through a metamorphosis via the digital video camera, fiercer and the many multimedia environments which now accommodate the “DV” format.

Digital Video Art
Examples:
Bit Screen
--Tape-based Video art into computer-based video art
--CD-ROMs, WWW, Streaming Video and audio,
--Quicktime

Sound art
--With the introduction of the computer and nonlinear editing systems into the contemporary audio recording studio, the metamorphosis of analogue sound into digital sound rapidly commenced.
--Analogue audio art and music to digital audio art and music
--The main element of the metamorphosis of analogue sound to digital sound happens through a process known as sampling. Sampling involves the capturing of continuos phenomena (events in time) during which periodic snapshots are taken. If the sampling rate is fast enough, the human sensory organs cannot perceive the gaps between snapshots when they are played back. This is the working principle behind motion pictures.
Audio art and Music
Examples:
John Cage's composition "4 Minutes 33 Seconds" (Video clip)
 by Golan Levin "Dial Tones, A Telephony"
Visual Sound art, Paul DeMarinas “The Edison Effect” (video)

--Digital technology, and sampling technologies used today by musicians and audio artists reintroduces the challenge put forth by John Cage and oothers of incorporating supposedly nonmusical sounds into music and audio art and also challenges the centuries-old beginning, middle and end blueprint for structuring time in musical compositions.

Analogue FM and Afraid to Digital Internet radio
Examples:
KCUR 89.3 Santa Monica, CA
FOSSIL MEDIA, Radio and Internet. Broadcast
--The traditional model of analogue radio broadcasting is a one-way model that consists of one transmitter, or station, transmitting to many receivers. This model does not allow the listener to participate in the broadcast.
--A hybrid form of radio is now developing between traditional analogue FM and AM radio and netcasting on the Internet. Typically, a conventional radio station now “simulcasts” the AM or FM signal over the Internet.
--Netcasting, combined with simulcasting over analogue channels, offers an alternative to the one-point-to-many model of traditional radio and television broadcasting.
--Unlike the limited one-way model of broadcasting, which involves a single transmitter transmitting to many receivers, hybrid Internet. Radio (and television) stations can now operate on the principle of many transmitters and many receivers transmitting and receiving in "real time" simultaneously on multiple mass media channels.

Analogue distribution of music into online music distribution
--The Napster case is case-in-point of the metamorphosis  of the old analogue form of music distribution through the record stores selling physical “units” or “albums” into digital distribution of downloadable files off the Internet.
--With the introduction of computer into the distribution process, analogue distribution has metamorphosed into Digital distribution, for better or worse, and has redefined the roles of artist, producer and distributor.

Text
Examples:
--Hypertetual transformation of the static word. Spacializing the text and incorporating nonlinear editing and story telling strategies.
--James Joyce's multilingual, nonlinear novel "Finnegans Wake"
--The Cut up technique of William Burroughs
--A non linear
hypertextual reading through Verlag Heinz Heise’s The Digital Revolution is a Revolution of Random Access
--A non linear hypertextual reading throug Steven Johnson's Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson,
Conclusion, Pg. 206 - 242
5) Text, Pg. 138 - 172

Net Art:
Examples:
Beal Center UCIrvine
Bit Screen
History of Net Art I
--A time-based blend of all of both Static and Time-based art forms.
--Net art is the quintessential contemporary experience of simultaneity and the opportunity to indulge in linked nonlinear narrative, alternative story forms and immeersive environments.
--Time-based net art is a developing octopus, causing Web TV with its multiple prerecorded and real-time tentacles grabbing one’s attention and demanding immersion and interaction on a number of digital fronts.

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson
5) Text, Pg. 138 - 172
Marshall McLuhan and the Guteburg Galaxy
From Paper and Ink to Pixels and Links

RELATED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
Desktop Theater
The Palace
Stelarc
Ping Body Performance
FOSSIL MEDIA, Radio and Internet Broadcast
Avatarme
Plaintext Players
Blast Theory
The Cooking Project
SEEMEN
Survival Research Labs
Heatseeking by Jordan Crandall
Surveillance Soap opera
Story Engine

OPTIONAL LINKS:
My Boyfriend came home form the war
ePaper
Brandon, A Year-long Narrative

RECOMMENDED READING:
Performance Art From Futurism to the Present, Roselee Goldberg

Project 2 Due
_____________________________________________________________________________

Week 7 (5/15)
Digital Performance

Examples relating to: Digital performance, Socialized vision, perspective, writing, live performance, virtual worlds
--Digital performance, as the names suggests, is a time-based medium that typically involves live performances which have been translated into digital representations of the live performance.

--When we experience the digital representation, or the illusion, of the live performance we are able to do so because we have been conditioned by the culture we live in to "read" the illusion, the representaiton. This process of inculturation is what Norman Bryson calls "socialized vision".
Socialized Vision
--Socialized vision is the process of visual habbits and patterns of visuality that a child gradually aquires form the culture he or she grows up in.
--The ability to read the illusion of 3 dimensional space on a two dimensional surface is one example of socialized vision.
--Other examples of socialized vision in western culture: reading and writing from left to right, top to bottom, watching tv, playing video games, looking at photographs, putting the subject in the middle of the frame when taking a picture.
Four key technologies that form the foundation of digital performances:
Our information age vision has been thoroughly socialzied and are quite adept at reading the illusions presented in virtual worlds. What we now experience as live digital performances in the computer utilize, among others, four key technologies/ mediums that make up the illusions of 3 D space and time. They are:
1) Perspective: drawing and perspective-generating machines which were introduced into Western culture during the Renaissance in the 16th century
2)  Invention of writing in Mesopotamia by the Sumerians, in 3200 BC
3)    The development of live performance in Western art such as theater, music, dance and, more recently, performance art,
4)   The recent developments of virtual worlds online which combine perspective, writing and live performance

.
1) Perspective
Perspective: perspective drawing introduced into Western culture during the Renaissance in Italy from the 14th to the 16th century. Renaissance Perspective,
Perspective:
the method in art of creating an impression of spatial depth, creating the illusion of three dimension on a two-dimensional surface.
Realism: this term means the portrayal of things as they are seen, as they appear in reality without embellishment or interpretation.
Realism:
it may also refer to the portrayal of the everyday rather than the idealized or the beautiful.
Aesthetic Distance

--Aesthetic Distance is the willing suspension of disbelief when confronted with any kind of illusion, such as a realistic painting, a movie, a photograph.
2) The invention of writing: Oral Cultures transformed into Literate Cultures
--The second mediating technology that plays a major role in contemporary digital performance is the invention of writing. --Like the illusions and representations created through perspective drawing, the written word created linguistic and metaphorical representations of the real world.
 --With the invention of writing
in Mesopotamia  by the Sumerians, in 3200 BC the myths, stories legends etc of oral cultures could now be passed on through written languages. Writing, in essence, became the stand-in for the human speaker.
3) Live art/performance art
--Performance art is a time-based, ephemeral art form that is hard to categories. From some of its earliest manifestations by the international group of Dada artist at the Cabaret Voltair in 1916 in Zurich, Switzerland, performance art has been a cross-breading medium and continues to be so to this day.
--Performance art is live art, happening in real time, often with the performance artist not acting but being him or herself doing actions in the real world.
--Cyberspace has provided a new virtual venue for performance art, venue where real spaces and time converge with virtual spaces and time.
4) The development of immersive, interactive, computer-based virtual “real time” experiences
-- Just as our vision has been socialized through the visual habits of perspective drawing, photography and the movies, it is now being socialized by the new digital perspectival machines that generate 3 D and 4 D worlds in the computer and online.
Summary: Digital Performance made possible

--With the development of immersive, interactive, computer-based virtua,l “real time” experiences, perspective, writing and live performance art have merged into the virtual art form of Digital performance.
_________________________________________________________

Virtual venues for live, real time Digital performance
--"Real Time" strategies.
Examples:
The Cooking Project

Like its real world counter part, Digital performance is live, ephemeral and existing in real time. Streaming technologies and online interactive virtual environments now provide a wide range of real time options for digital performers. Some of these options are: Virtual movie theaters, Virtual theater stages, Virtual  radio and television stations, Virtual performance spaces, Virtual telephones, Virtual texts (hypertexts)
--The desktop as performance space

Examples:
Toni La Bone's "Prophet of @" online performance (Video tape of desktop teleconferencing performance).
The development of the GUI (Graphical User Interface) combined with real time streaming technologies has transformed the desktop into a virtual performance space, an alternative art space where hybrid multimedia collages can be custom built and personalized for individual and group use.
--Desktop Teleconferencing software and reflectors:
Examples:“From the Quotidian” (Video tape of desktop teleconferencing performance).
CUSeeMe, Web cams, video telephones, and others

Essentially, desktop teleconferencing is the video telephone come of age. The modern video telephone works on the principle of the old party line system back in early days of the telephone.  Several parties shared the same line. With desktop teleconferencing several parties share the same line. This multi-user line is refered to as a reflector and can handle varying numbers of callers depending on the bandwidth and number of participants in the call.
--Intra Net performances, Closed Circuit performances
Example: Chris Burden, video performance "Velvet Water" (Excerpt from Video tape)
The UCSD network is an example of an Intra Net with a variety of live, interactive possibilities. An intra net is similar to a closed circuit video setup where video cameras are sending a live feed to the broadcast area. It is a closed circuit because the signal is not broadcast outside the real time feedback loop of the circuit.
--Web Cams
Examples:
http://evergreenbeach.com/
Web cam in Ephraim, Wisconsin. A potential impromptu Digital performance space.
Web cams used as a virtual performance venue are as numerous as the situations they are used in. Some web cams that broadcast ordinary scenes from everyday life can become impromptu performance space (for Culture Jamming!).
--Streaming live: Internet Radio and TV
Example:
Sorenson Broadcaster and the OSX Streaming Server
KCUR 89.3 Santa Monica, CA
FOSSIL MEDIA, Radio and Internet. Broadcast
The traditional model of analogue radio broadcasting is a one-way model that consists of one transmitter, or station, transmitting to many receivers. This model does not allow the listener to participate in the broadcast. A hybrid form of radio is now developing between traditional analogue FM and AM radio and netcasting on the Internet. Typically, a conventional radio station now “simulcasts” the AM or FM signal over the Internet.

--Netcasting,
combined with simulcasting over analogue channels, offers an alternative to the one-point-to-many model of traditional radio and television broadcasting.
--Unlike the limited one-way model of broadcasting, which involves a single transmitter transmitting to many receivers, hybrid Internet. Radio (and television) stations can now operate on the principle of many transmitters and many receivers

--Editing as a performance: real time nonlinear digital editing
Example:
Adriene Jenik "Mauve Desert" (CD-ROM)
Keith Piper "Relocating the Remains" (CD-ROM)
David Blair's "Wax Web"
--With the advent of nonlinear editing systems and the pervasiveness of interactivity within the computer environment, the process of editing no longer happens exclusively in an editing room or situation which is isolated from the actual presentation of the edited material.
--Editing has become a major component of digital performance.
--A great deal of interactive computer art now includes low level editing which the viewer takes control of the process.
--The viewer becomes both a performer and a kind of assistant editor in the experience of the work.
--Hypertext: Text-based performances

Story Engine
Plaintext Players

Lambda Moo
--The Internet itself as a global digital performance space and time
--The 24-7-365 prime time virtual venue for digital performance is the ultimate experience in simultaneity and interactivity. The Internet is an ongoing experiment in what William Gibson calls the “share consensual illusion” of the immersive environment of virtual reality.
_____________________________________________________
Mediated presence in Digital Performance
Note: this section on mediated presence will be covered again in the next lecture on the Psychology of Telepresence
Examples:
http://www.digibodies.org/online/
The Mind/Body split
--In the history of we
stern civilization there has been an ongoing separation of the mind and the body and between technology and nature.
--This split between the mind and body has intensified exponentially by the development of representational and mediating technologies created during the industrial revolution and the information age. The separation of what is nature and what is culture also intensifies at this time.

--With the development of cyberspace and virtual worlds, the mind/body, technology/nature split is being radically redefined.
Points of view on the Mind/Body Split:
--Stelarc
, the Australian performance artist, Stelarc , claims the body is obsolete. "We are at the end of philosophy and human physiology. Human thought recedes in the human past. Virtual Reality technology allows transgression across boundaries between male/female, human/machine, time/space. The body becomes situated beyond the skin."mind body split is simultaneously growing and disappearing.
--Sandy Stone, in the article “Will the Real Body Please Stand Up , proposes that in the realm of virtual worlds that the mind body split is simultaneously growing and disappearing. http://www.rochester.edu/College/FS/Publications/StoneBody.html
--She states that a deep restructuring of what constitutes a subject (or mind) and what constitutes a body
--Sherry Turkle Identity in cyber space has been called, "the second self" by Sherry Turkle, writer and psychologist.

Electronic Body building: performing with our electronic bodies (Avatars) through hybrid computer interfaces.
Example:
Stelarc "Ping Body"
http://www.seemen.org/
--In this transitional process of breaking down the distinction between minds, bodies, technology and nature we citizens of cyberspace are acquiring a body double, an electronic body, a” second self” as Sherry Turkle calls it, that extends our analogue persona into the digital realm where we are doing an increasing variety of digital performances, not only as art but also in our daily lives online.


Digtial Performance

MUDS, Chat Rooms ,hypertext environments, virtual communities and other real time multimedia environments
Professor Adriene Jenik and Lisa Brenneis Desktop Theater
--MUDS Multi Uver Domains (or Multi User Dungeons, refering to the board game from the 1980s).
Sherry Turkle, on MUDS, Virtual communities and other real online environment
Sherry Turkle
on searching for community in cyberspace

Example
Metaopet The World's First Transorganic Virtual Pet Game
METAPET LAUNCH, Wednesday, May 15, 2002, 6-9 pm ,Pacific Design Center, Museum of Contemporary Art ,8687 Melrose Avenue, West Hollywood, CA 90069
AIM III: LUNA PARK is pleased to sponsor the Los Angeles public unveiling of Metapet, the world's first transgenic virtual pet game. Metapet is a project by Natalie Bookchin with Jin Lee, Cathy Davies and Mark Allen of Action Tank (www.action-tank.org) presented by Creative Time (www. creativetime.org) in association with Hamaca (www.hamaca.org).

Professor Adriene Jenik and Lisa Brenneis: Desktop Theater
--Since 1997 Professor Jenik and Ms. Brenneis have adapted, directed, rehearsed, and performed live, in "real time," over 25 differetn Desktop Theater experiments

Distributed Narative: Distributed narrative works with the same principle of distributed computing over a network and involves adapting and acting out a chosen play or narrative by having a cast of charactors acting out the play from a number of computer terminals distributed over the Internet.
--An example of distributed narrative is Jenik's adaptation of Samual Beckett's modernist stage play, "Waiting for Godot." into a chatroom drama called "watingforgodot.com" staged in the Palace.--Jenik and Brenneis both shared a keen interest in what they called distributed Narative.
--"Besides being the first Desktop Theater piece developed within the Palace, watingforgodot.com was also the first in a series of "doubly-live" Desktop Theater performances. With waitingforgodot.com we began our experiments with performing live in an immersive public chat space, while a seated theater audience viewed the projected amplified perforamcne as it occured."

Naima "social architecture for networked communities"
Habbohotel
ActiveWorlds
PalaceTools
PalacePlanet
Lambda Moo
(Give this a second try if it does not load on the first)

Final Assignment:
Create an online avatar, animated personal Icon and an online performance
of the two. The performance of your digital alter ego avatar must be located in
virtual communities and you must work within your assigned group
.
Examples of Student work, Final Project

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
“Will the Real Body Please Stand Up 
The Psychology of Cyberspace
http://www.rider.edu/users/suler/psycyber/index.html

RELATED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
Telegarden
Gender Swithching in Cyberspace
How To Be a Net Artist
Feng Shui of Virtual Environments
http://adaweb.walkerart.org/project/secure/kk/kk3.html
deskswap
ginga
Network Communicate Kaleidoscipe
Interactive story links
Lambda Moo

RECOMMENDED READING:
The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age, Sandy Stone
Life on the Screen Sherry Turkle

_________________________________________________________________
Week 8 (5/22)
Telepresence: a shared "consensual hallucination" in VR and other Immersive Environments
Today’s lecture will consist of:
1) brief review of some of the technologies involved in telepresenc, VR, Cyberspace and other immersive environments.
2) the psychology of telepresence, VR and immersive environments

1)
Cyberspace: History of the Concept
Examples:
Terms relating to Cyberspace
( Excerpted from Lecture 4)

--The term,cyberspace
is related to the term, “cybernetics”, which was coined by Norber Weiner in 1943. Cybernetics, originally, consisted of the study of biological and artificial control systems. Cybernetics combines the disciplins of computer science, social philosophy, and epistemology.
--Cybernetics is concerned with discovering what mechanisms control systems and, in particular, how systems regulate themselves.

  --The term “Cyberspace” was coined by the science fiction writer, William Gibson in his cyberpunk novel of 1983, “Neuromancer.”
--Neal Stevenson. "Snow Crash." New York: Bantam Books, 1993, described rich 3-D virtual world where users are represented by avatars

 --Originally, the meaning of cyberspace in the 1980s -- early 1990s, was a collaborative (shared), networked (distributed), three-dimensional virtual world.
 --“Cyberspace is a metaphor for describing the non-phsical navigable terrain created by computer systems. An example: online systems, which create a cyberspace within which people can communicate with one another through e-mail, do research, fall in love, or simply window shop.”
--In its extreme form, called virtual reality, users are presented with visual, auditor, and even tactile feedback that makes cyberspace feel real.”

Virtual Worlds (VR)
VR, AR (Augmented Reality) VRML
Examples:

Char Davis "Osmose" and excerpt from video tape
Virtual Reality: Surgical Simulations (Video tape)
Virtual: Existing in essence or effect, but not in actual fact.
--It is important to note that the term virtual reality is sometimes used more generally to refer to any virtual world represented in a computer, even if it’s just a text-based or graphical representation.
--In its most basic configuration, virtual reality is an artificial environment created with computer hardware and software and presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels like a real environment.
--Recall Doug Englebart’s conception of machines as not extensions of our bodies but as environments we can move around in and create.

Three distinguishing features of VR:
1) It is a computer-mediated experience.
2) The objects in the virtual world are modeled using 3D modeling techniques.
3) The system provides random interactivity.

VR systems can are broken down into three major applications:
1)     desktop systems like architectural walk-throughs
2)    hybrid hardscape/imagescapes that wed architectural spaces with imaging technologies to effect partially immersive environments
3)    fully immersive, real time simulations.
AR (Augmented Reality)

AR (Augmented Reality)
AR created using hardware devices: maintains a real-time view of reality, simulates altered reality,
--“Brenda Laurel, one of the leading theoretician/practitioners of new media, observed that this third type of system creates  “tight linkage between visual, kinesthetic, and auditory modalities: that fosters a “sense of immersion” for the user.”
--To "enter" this third type of virtual reality, a user typically dons special gloves, earphones, and goggles, all of which receive their input from the computer system. With this setup, at least three of the five senses are controlled by the computer. A VR system feeds sensory input to the user and it also monitors the user's actions.
--Recall the term cybernetics which is concerned with how natural and man-made systems regulate themselves.

VRML
Example:
Using the "Cosmo" (for Download of the Cosmos) VRML player VRML example
VRML as Art
http://www.rpi.edu/%7Eruiz/toolbar/StudentWorks_Frameset.html
VRML is short for Virtual Reality Modeling Language. VRML is a specification for displaying three-dimensional objects on the WWW. It is a kind of 3-D equivalent of HTML. Files written in VRML have a .vrl extension (short for world). To view these files, you need a VRML browser or a VRML plug-in to a Web browser.
--VRML produces a hyperspace, or world, a three-dimensional space on your screen that you can figuratively move within this space.
"Among the most remarkable aspects of VRML is that it is, at once, a file format and a programming language. Thus the file format is in text and is readable by human beings as well as computers. This means at least three thing. First, it is possible to read VRML files directly as a way of learning the technology. The typical graphics file is all binary hieroglyphics in a word processor, and so there is no way of examining the format directly. Second, the text-based nature of a VRML file means that it is editable by hand, even if it was created in the first instance by VRML authoring tools. Third, and as an obvious extension of the prior points, a simple VRML file can be completely created by typing in the proper code."
Two VR systems currently available:
1) QTVR images can be created using Apple's QuickTime VR Authoring Studio software. You can view QTVR works by simply downloading a player, that integrates itself into the user's browser.
2) iPIX (in earlier times IPIX)
The iPIX imaging system goes a step further than QTVR... engaging the viewer in a 360° by 360° image, sky to ground or ceiling to floor. Though its marketing is directed at photographers, iPIX software could easily develop into a creative tool for a diversity of artists. .

Immersive environments, a short chronology
Example:

Simulation and Training
Thomas DeFanti, co-developer of the CAVE and director, University of Illinois at Chicago's Electronic Visualization Laboratory.
Chronology
--1945 Vannevar Bush, "As We May Think" At the end of the article, Bush prefigures some of the basic elements of the interface for entering a virtual world and immersive environments.
--1965 Ivan Sutherland, the pioneer of computer graphics, saw a vision of the future of VR, immersive environments. His program, “Sketchpad” was the beginning of graphical, kinetic,immersive computer environments.
--U.S. Military developes one of the first virtual reality systems, a video screen and model-based flight simulator.
--By the 1970s, computer-generated graphics replace videos and models. These flight simulations were operating in real time, very primitive VR. In 1979, the military experimented with head-mounted displays.

--By the early 1980s, better software, hardware, and motion-control platforms
.
--1984 NASA uses screens from Radio Shack's LCD Pocket TV for the first low cost commercial VR hardware and software.
--After this, Virtual Reality takes off, exponential increase in research and development of VR
--In 1983 Jaron Lanier's VPL. VPL was one of the first companies to start building equipment for Virtual Reality. One of the first things they built was the DataGlove(TM).
--1985 Dr. Henry Ruchs, UNC, Chapel Hill
Created a simulated environment and the tracking devices to put you theirin. Inside that world. Instead of nobs and rotators, you simply just walking around.
--
Presently Cyberspace, VR and Immersive Worlds are moving in the direction of high rez, full immersion through greater prostheticization of the body for interfacing with Virtual Worlds.

Early Virtual Communitys
Example:

--The first virtual communities based on information technology were the on-line bulletin board services (BBS) of the middle 1970s.
--BBSs were named after their perceived function--virtual places, conceived to be just like physical bulletin boards, where people could post notes for general reading.
-- "The first successful BBS
programs were primitive, usually allowing the user to search for messages alphabetically, or simply to read messages in the order in which they were posted. These programs were sold by their authors for very little, or given away as "shareware"--part of the early visionary ethic of electronic virtual communities.”  --Sandy Stone
--CommuniTree, a San Francisco group headed by John James, a programmer and visionary thinker, had developed the idea that the BBS was a virtual community, a community that promised radical transformation of existing society and the emergence of new social forms.
CommuniTree #1 went on-line in May 1978
in the San Francisco Bay area of northern California, one year after the introduction of the Apple II computer and its first typewritten and hand-drawn operating manual. CommuniTree #2 followed quickly.
SIMNET (1980s --)
Besides the BBSs, there were more graphic, interactive systems under construction. Their interfaces were similar to arcade games or flight simulators--(relatively) high-resolution, animated graphics. The first example of this type of cyberspace was a military simulation called SIMNET. SIMNET was conducted by a consortium of military interests, primarily represented by DARPA, and a task group from the Institute for Simulation and Training, located at the University of Central Florida.

Habitat "many-player online virtual environment" (mid 1980s)
Habitat, designed by Chip Morningstar and Randall Farmer, is a large-scale social experiment that is accessible through common telephone-line computer networks. Habitat is inhabitable in that, when the user signs on, he or she has a window into the ongoing social life of the cyberspace--the community "inside" the computer.
The social space itself is represented by a cartoonlike frame. The virtual person who is the user's delegated agency is represented by a cartoon figure that may be customized from a menu of body parts. When the user wishes his/her character to speak, s/he types out the words on the Commodore's keyboard, and these appear in a speech balloon over the head of the user's character.


Current multi-user online graphical virtual worlds.

Examples:
These are examples of the current trend toward graphical, interactive domains on the internet, sometimes referred to as "habitats," "GMUKS" (Graphical Multi-user Konversation), or, "multimedia chat."
Telegarden
"This tele-robotic installation allows WWW users to view and interact with a remote garden filled with living plants."
Jaron Lanier, a VR Pioneer, is currently the director of the Internet 2 tele-immersion project which lets users interact in real time in a shared simulated environment. They are unencumbered by goggles, gloves or bodysuits and feel as is they are in same room.
Tele-Immersion (National Tele-immersion Initiative - NTII) will enable users at geographically distributed sites to collaborate in real time in a shared, simulated environment as if they were in the same physical room. This new paradigm for human-computer interaction is the ultimate synthesis of networking and media technologies and, as such, it is the greatest technical challenge for Internet2.
Internet 2 is a highspeed data backbone similar to the current internet, however it is in its experimental stages and is extremely costly. Skeptics say the project is falling short of its goals due to lack of innovation. However, Lanier's project is seen as the exception to this shortcoming.

Dive
John Bruneau's "any3letters.com" (Quicktime)
Sheldon Brown Mi Casa Tu Casa

Telegarden
http://www.seemen.org/
Feng Shui of Virtual Environments
Network Communicate Kaleidoscipe
Interactive story links
Lambda Moo

deskswap
Habbohotel
ActiveWorlds

2)
The psychology of Telepresence
Review of related key concepts in last week's lecture to this week's lecture.
--Last week’s lecture on digital performance layed the foundation for this wek’s lecture on Telepresence: the shared “consensual hallucination” of VR and other immersive environments.  At the core of the technical and psychological dimensions of Telepresence is digital performance.
--As you will recall, the
four key technologies involved in digital performance:
1)    Perspective drawing and perspective-generating machines
2)    The written word: Oral Cultures transformed into Literate Cultures
3)
    Live art/performance art
4)
   The development of computer-based virtual “real time” experiences

Asthetic distance
--The upshot of the effects of these four key technologies in digital performance is that we willingly suspend our sense of disbelief and participate in a stunning array of mediated realities which create, in real time, the illusion of the presence of people, places, things and time.
--This willing suspension of disbelief is of central importance to the concept of telepresence in virtual reality systems and other immersive environments.
--Along with the legacy of Renaissance perspective, we have also inherited the mental process of responding to a stunning range of representations of reality like we would respond to their real counter parts in reality itself.
--Our willing suspension of disbelief of illusions has carried over into contemporary mediating technologies such as movies, television, the telephone and most recently, virtual reality systems and the Internet.

Telepresence: the shared “consensual hallucination” precursors to
Example:
TELEVISION:
--The prefix, “tele” means distance, distant. When added as a prefix to the beginning of words it implies the person place or thing that comes to you from a distance through some kind of mediating technology, such as the television

Tele + gram = telegram, or a message sent from a distant place
Tele + vision = television, or vision from afar
Tele + phone = telephone, or sound transmitted from a distance
Tele + presence = telepresence, or presence transmitted from a distance.

The Mind/Body split
--In the history of we
stern civilization there has been an ongoing separation of the mind and the body and between technology and nature.
--This split between the mind and body has intensified exponentially by the development of reprentational and mediating technologies created during the industrial revolution and the information age. The separation of what is nature and what is culture also intensifies at this time.

--With the development of cyberspace and virtual worlds, the mind/body, technology/nature split is being radically redefined.

Observations on the Psychology of Telepresence
Life on the Screen” Sherry Turkle
--Turkle astutely points out, "In the virtual world, "rules of social interaction are built, not received" and that "virtual worlds provide an environment for experiences that may be hard to come by in the real."
--Identity in cyber space has been called, "the second self" by Sherry Turkle, writer and psychologist. "At one time the self was considered a stable unified set of experiences and practices. When physics transformed the world into a relative and chaotic space, so did the the self become fragmented, multiplied and capable of transformation. The self is never the same, it is always shifting. A more fluid sense of self, as allowed by various virtual technologies, allows for greater diversity of experience."
A discussion of Sand Stone's article
"Will the Real Body Please Stand Up"

Related articles
The Psychology of Cyberspace
Gender Swithching in Cyberspace
Example:
Paul Vanouse: Interactive Media Work ,1992 - 1996 (Video Tape)
Synthetic Pleasures, A Virtual Wedding (Video)

Electronic Body building: Agency, Avatars, text, images, sound and hybrid computer interfaces.
Example:
Mark Amerika How To Be a Net Artist

--In this transitional process of breaking down the distinction between minds, bodies, technology and nature we citizens of cyberspace are acquiring a body double, an electronic body, a” second self” as Sherry Turkle calls it, that extends our analogue persona into the digital realm where we are doing an increasing variety of digital performances, not only as art but also in our daily lives onlind.
Agency and Agents.
In Lecture 10 on Artificial Intellegence and Artificial Life I will go into greater detail on the subject of agency and agents.
--For the purpose of today's lecture on Telepresence I present two definitions to contextualize their function in creating telepresence of what Turkle calls the "second self"
agency 1) The condition of being in action, operation; 2) the means or mode of acting, instrumentality
agent 1) one that acts or has the power   authority to act 2) one empowered to act for or represent another; 3) a means by which something is done or caused; an instrument; 4) a representative or official of a government.

--When we project our personas into cyberspace we do so typically by endowing our electronic body, or avatar with agency, the means or mode of acting, giving it instrumentality to effect change in cyberspace and to make things happen.
--This process of endowing our online electronic body with agency can be configured in many ways. The most common starting point is to create a visual Avatar which, in essence, becomes one's agent, a stand-in for one's persona and body in the analogue world. Once the visual avator has been established, it can then be further endowed with agency in the forms mobility and independence and inflections of charactor traits that resemble one's identity in the real world, or, completely new charactor traits.

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
Ann Marie Schneider, Does Lara Croft Wear Fake Polygons?
Shift+Control Amy Jo Kim, Ritual Reality: Social Design for Online Gaming Environments

RELATED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
social architecture for networked communities
gameart SWITCH issue
Myst*
Riven*
Bad Mojo*
TombRaider
Zelda
Tekkan
Silicon Valley Tarot Deck
Madame Polly
Ultima Online
Purple Moon, "Rockett's First Day of School"*
Toshio Iwai "Compositions on the Table"
The Intruder
Sissyfight 2000
BabyWorld
Noodle by Josh Portway
The Sims
Josephine Starrs & Leon Cmielewski
Summons to Surrender
Bang Bang (you're not dead?)
Blacklash
memebots
// LUCKYKISS_XXX > adult kisekae ningyou sampling ^_^
Iconica - Troy innocent
Lara Croft Stripped Bare

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Week 9 (5/29)
Animation, Computer Animation, Computer Games, Digital Cinema

Animation, Computer Animation, Computer Games and Digital Cinema would not be possible without the development of one significant invention: the mechanical means to represent motion. What follows is a brief discussion of the influence of that invention on contemporary forms of the moving image and culturally specific forms of representation and "realism".

--It is important to note that the development of mechanical means of representing motion were developed during the Industrial Revolution (roughly 1800s - 1940s), a time when urban city life was becoming increasingly mechanized and automated.
--Technological innovations during the industrial revolution radically changed our sense of time and space and brought about new experiences of motion, locomotion and the representation of both.

--1876 the telephone was invented, the wireless telegraph, bicycle
--1877 Thomas Edison’s phonograph
--1880 the light bulb is invented
--Ford automobile was invented
--1884 the steam turbine
--1888 Kodak box camera invented
--1889 Eiffel Tower erected for the Paris World’s Fair
--1889 x-ray machine invented
--1892 diesel engine
--1895 movie camera
--1903 first powered flight by the Wright Brothers
--1905 Einstein’s theory of relativity
--1909 first flight over the English Channel

New forms of Perspective, Realism, Aesthetic Distance and Socialized Vision
The invention of mechanical means to represent motion, time and speed
Examples:
--The mechanical devices invented to represent motion during the Industrial Revolution were numerous and radically changed the formerly static means of representing perspective, 3-D space, on a 2-D surface into an a time-based and, if you will, animated perspective.
--The radical change was this: with drawings and paintings of 3D space it is assumed that the point of view of the artist and viewer, while he or she is painting/viewing the scene, is unchanging and that reality is unchanging, that the world freezes for all eternity into this one view.
With the onslaught of the modern mechanized world filled with experiences of simultaneity, speed and dynamism, this static representation of 3D space on a 2D surface was no longer a sufficient means to represent contemporary urban culture and life.
--Einstein's theory of relativity demolished the old static perspective worldview.
--The flood of inventions to mechanically represent motion and perspective took over the business of painting and drawing representations of modern urban life,

--More recent perspective-generating machine include the camera, the movie camera, digital video cameras and now the immersive perspectival machines of computer generated virtual reality environments.

Precursors to contemporary animation: mechanical means of representing motion
What follows is a discussion of the physiological process we go through when we look at an animation and then some early examples of mechanical means of representing motion.
Examples:
Persistence of Vision
"The human brain retains an image for a fraction of a second longer than the eye actually sees it. That is why the world doesn't suddenly go black every time you blink. When you watch a movie, what you are actually seeing are individual still frames of film projected at 24 frames per second. Each of these frames is separated by darkness, so you are sitting in a dark theater about half of the time. The images are discontinuous; that is, all of the action that happened between the frames is not represented. Because of persistence of vision, what you perceive is one image blending into the next, giving the illusion of movement and continuity. The dark spaces are "ignored" by the brain."
Examples:
Persistence of Vision
True animation cannot be achieved without first understanding a fundamental principle of the human eye: the persistence of vision. This was first demonstrated in 1828 by Frenchman, Paul Roget, who invented the thaumatrope. It was a disc with a string or peg attached to both sides. One side of the disc showed a bird, the other an empty cage. When the disc was twirled, the bird appeared in the cage. This proved that the eye retains images when it is exposed to a series of pictures, one at a time.
Examples:
Persistence of Vision
Two other inventions helped to further the cause of animation. The phenakistoscope, invented by Joseph Plateau in 1826, was a circular card with slits around the edge. The viewer held the card up to a mirror and peered through the slits as the card whirled. Through a series of drawings around the circumference of the card, the viewer saw a progression of images resulting in a moving object. The same technique applied to the zeotrope. In 1860, Pierre Desvignes, inserted a strip of paper containing drawings on the inside of a drumlike cylinder. The drum twirled on a spindle, and the viewer gazed through slots to the top of the drum. The figures on the inside magically came to life, endlessly looping in an acrobatic feat.

Examples:
The Magic Lantern

Movies
Examples:
Lumiere Brothers: Demolition
GEORGES MÉLIÈS Trip to the MOON:

--The development of the motion camera and projector by Thomas A. Edison and others provided the first real practical means of making animation. Even still, the animation was done in the simplest of means. Stuart Blackton, made a short film in 1906 entitled Humorous Phases of Funny Faces where he drew comical faces on a blackboard, photographed them, and the erased it to draw another stage of the facial expression.
--This "stop-motion" effect astonished audiences by making drawings comes to life.
Examples:
Dreams of a Rarebet Fiend

____________________________________________

Animation may be defined as the creation of moving pictures one frame at a time: the word is also used to mean the sequence produced in this manor.
--As film is projected at 24 frames per second, drawn animation technically requires twenty-four drawings for each second of film, that is 1440 drawings every minute - and even more for animation made on video.
--In practice, however, animation can be shot "on 2s", which means that two frames of each drawing, or whatever, are captured rather than just one.
--The higher the "frame rate" the more convincing or "real" the illusion of motion.

Some methods of animation among many:
Examples:
"Felix the Cat"
(video clip
)
--Cel animation, individual drawings drawn on transparent sheets which are then overlayed on a long continuous background that is moved underneath the cels.
--Cel animation is the most widely used form for traditional, hand-drawn animation and has been particularly useful as a method translated through digital technology.
--Drawing, or scratching directly on the film,frame by frame to create movement.
--Cutout Manipulations: like Terry Gilliam's quirky work for Monty Python TV series is a well know example of cutout animation.
Examples:
Eric Sacs' "Touchtone"

--Stop-motion A distinct alternative to all of these essentially two-dimensional forms is three-dimensional, or Stop-motion animation. Many techniques are used in stop-motion but almost all involve manipulating small 3D sets on which objects are moved carefully between shots.

Examples:
"Alice" Jan Svenkmeir
(video clip)
--Hybrid forms: involve a mixture of 2-D and 3-D animation techniques.

A few possible steps, among many, on the way to Animate an inanimate object.
Animate: "To give life to, fill with life. To impart motion or activity to. To fill with spirit, courage, or resolution; encourage."
Animation: "To act, process, or result of imparting life, interest, spirit, motion, or activity. The quality or condition of being alive, avitive, spirited, or vigorous The preparation of animated cartoons. An animated cartoon."
--The "reality engine", the heart and soul of animation involves giving the characters life, or the illusion of.
--At the heart of the engine: Agency and agents

agency:
1) The condition of being in action, operation; 2) the means or mode of acting, instrumentality

agent: 1) one that acts or has the power authority to act 2) one empowered to act for or represent another; 3) a means by which something is done or caused; an instrument; 4) a representative or official of a government.
Realism: the portrayal of things as they are seen, as they appear in reality without embellishment or interpretation, "realistically".
--Different times have dictated different attitudes toward the degree of realism.

Realism:
it may also refer to the portrayal of the everyday rather than the idealized or the beautiful.
Trompe l'oell: a style of painting that gives the impression of photographic realism.
--Fool the eye, painting so real the animals come sniffing around the picture of meat on a plate, looks so real they are duped into believing it so.

Aesthetic Distance: Aesthetic Distance is the willing suspension of disbelief when confronted with any kind of illusion, such as a realistic painting, a movie, a photograph.

Socialized Vision: -Socialized vision is the process of visual habits and patterns of visuality that a child gradually acquires from the culture he or she grows up in.
--Our ability suspend our disbelief and engage in the illusion of animation is an excellent example of how our vision gets socialized by the conventions of


A master animator's approach for giving life to the lifeless.
Examples:
The late Chuck Jones

Road Runner & Wily Coyote (video)
Chuck Jones was the animator of Bugs an daffy, Pepe La Pew, Elmer Fud, Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote and many other animated characters.
--He created these characters while working for Warner Brothers, and working with legendary animators like Tex Avery and Friz Freleng, producing work for the Looney Tunes series and Merry Melodies productions.
--Minimalist approach to animation and single-handedly invented Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote.
--His belief that the success of the characters lay in their acting, not in dialogue. One of his strictest rules for the Coyote-road Runner series was: " no dialogue, every, except "beep beep."

Frequently occuring themes/scenarios for animation:
--
Frequently, very frequently in contemporary times, the subject of animating is the giving life to a robot, a machine, a mechanical device, an inanimate object by a scientist, an artist, an evil doer.
--Depiction of the life of a cyborg and its interaction with humans
--To depict humans with super human or godlike abilities
--To invision the future of the human race (Distopian and Utopian)
--Fantasy: The Depiction of fantastical worlds so unlike our own.
--Comedy

Examples:
giving life to a robot

Astro Boy
The first anime series shown in America was Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boy (Tetsuwan Atom). Astro Boy premiered on NBC stations in 1963.

___________________________________________________
Computer animation
NOTE: I will not go through the history of computer animation here, but rather discuss it from a more conceptual point of view and also touch on the influential role that computer animation has played in contemporary cultural production,
For a history of computer animation I refer you to the following sites:

A history of computer animation
Anime on TV
Disney
Computer animation techniques are typically hybrid forms, combining traditional analogue 2-D and 3-D techniques with new computer techniques.
--One example is the use of video cameras, and video capture cards for capturing, or "frame grabbing" each frame of animation to disk--weither it is drawn on paper or cel, contructed on a 3-D set, or made using any other method.
--The most recent forms of computer animation involve manipulating image files through a whole host of graphics programs.
--The gif annexations that you all have done is a good example of this technique.
Some common computer animation techniques/applications:
Digital Cel and Sprite Animation
Examples:
Yelena Aizin's "dCarmen Digital Story Telling"
(CD-ROM)
Key Frame Animation
Motion Graphics
(using key frames and interpolation strategies. After Effects is an example)
3-D Animation
Virtual Reality
VRML


Perspective-generating machines come of age, the "Reality Engine"

"Behind every computer animation is a mathematical equation." --Walter, a Software Engineer
,,,an algorithmic piece of coded chicanery, trompe l'oile reality engines at work, matrix math, polynomials, algebra being the master animator of the binary code.
.
Some related terms
Realism: the portrayal of things as they are seen, as they appear in reality without embellishment or interpretation.
Trompe l'oell: a style of painting that gives the impression of photographic realism.
--Fool the eye, painting so real the animals come sniffing around the picture of meat on a plate, looks so real they are duped into believing it so.

--2-D and 3-D animation and digital composing, essentially, perspective generating machines come of age in techno culture.

"Reality Engines" Who's "reality" is this engine animating? Animation as a culturally specific form of representation or realism.
Examples:
Astro Boy
Aikira

--Animation in the West (the United State in particular) is dominated by the goal realism, while animation in the east and other parts of the world tends towards the stylized, the symbolic, the iconic,
--Western animation is very fluid, aspiring towards REALISM, "Getting that hair to blow like it was real."
--Seeing is believing. Western science based on the empirical method which is based on direct observation and realizing representations of ethos observations. Perspective drawing, etc.
--Western religions the gods are realistically represented as humans.
--In other religions of the world the gods are typically represented more symbolically as spirits.

Critique of "Poser" animation software
Examples
:
Gender Roles in Animation (Video)
Using Poser's cliches

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Computer Games
NOTE: I will not go through the history of computer games here, but rather discuss computer games from a more conceptual point of view and also touch on the influential role that computer games have played in contemporary cultural production,
For a history of computer games refer you to the following sites:

History of Video games
Switch
Computer Games resources
RENDEROSTIY
The Poser Forum Online: www.poserforum.org
3D Alliance: www.3dalliance.net
Brycetech.com: www.brycetech.com
Planet-3D.com: www.planet-3d.com
ZBRUSH: www.pixologic.com
3D Gate: www.3dgate.com

Examples
Laura Croft (game demo, CD-ROM)

Tomb Raider (The movie on video)
--Discussion of assigned reading: Does Lara Croft Wear Fake Polygons?
--Culture Jamming: Game patch, Son of Scratch
--Point of view, first person perspective, third person perspective
Switch Issue on Games

Culture Jamming on the notion of what a computer game might be: Summons to Surrender, a parody of the net as a game.
Examples:
Summons to Surrender,


Animation and computer games as Art
Examples:
--It is now common place for art museums and galleries to show all forms of computer art, computer games included.
--The implications of:
Cracking the Mase: switch.sjsu.edu/CrackingtheMaze/
Bitstreams: www.whitney.org
Rhizome: www.rhizome.org
Bit Screen

Game Show: www.massmoca.org/index2.html
SHIFT-CTRL: beallcenter.uci.edu/shift/textonly/main.html
John Haddock'sScreenshots

______________________________________________________________
"Digital Cinema"

Examples:

Bit Screen

"Little Movies", Lev Manovich
--Digital cinema utilizes techniques of analogue cinema and has launched, via CD-ROM and the www, a new form of interactive cinema which explores the possibilities of interactive narrative and a range of experimental forms such as nonlinear structuring of narratives and story telling.
--Digital cinema is often times edited on nonlinear editing software, such as Final Cut Pro and Media 100.
--Digital Cinema can be interactive, allowing the viewer participation in a story,
choosing different paths through the narrative space and interact with the characters.

--Digital Video and Digital Cinema, fits like hand in data glove
"Time Code" Simultaneity of the contemporary urban technoculture
Experimental Cinema = new forms of computer-based cinema
Example:
Synthetic Pleasures (clip from video)

Synthetic Pleasures (clip from video)
Motion rides, Disneyland, The "you are there" feeling created by motion simulator seats and movies in front of you.
Motion rides similar to early video project and model-based flight simulators developed by the military in the 70s.
Motion Graphics
--as described above in computer animation
--Text in motion
--Adjectives on the move, nouns that speak, verbs that animate the text.
Interactive Digital Cinema
--Non Linear narrative structures.
--Viewers participate in the construction of the narrative through random access to the narrative's data base
--film as interface to a multimedia database:
Example:
Majestic, the game
David Blair (USA). "Wax or the Invention of Television among the Bees." 1991.
David Blair (USA). "Wax Web" 1994
Net cinema:
--films designed specifically for the Web:
"Little Movies", Lev Manovich

Approaching the seamless illusions: Virtual Actors / Motion capture
Example:
"The Final Fantasy" Hiranobu Saggaguchi
--Acclaim motion capture system (USA). 1994.
"Titanic" (USA, director: James Cameron). 1997.
Example:
The music video for Bjork's single "All Is Full Of Love," 1999 (RealPlayer)

The Final Fantasy Hiranobu Saggaguchi
--Believability is the goal, to create fully realized charactors. Reality factor.

--Asthetic distance, the willing suspension of disbelief.
--The psychology of the film is the curriosity, the characters are complete clichés. Rather than being involved in the characters lives, the spectator remains aware of the activity of looking at the film. Fulfilling curiosity.
Scopic pleasure, the power of negative fascination, we are compelled to look at it even though we know it is an illusion.
--Digital actors and the push for "realism".

Send in the Clones
All of the above ideas lead into next week's lecture:
Artificial Inelegance, Artificial Life,
fictional portrayals of human-machine hybrids

IN-CLASS related LINKS
social architecture for networked communities
gameart SWITCH issue
Myst*
Riven*
Bad Mojo*
TombRaider
Zelda
Tekkan
Silicon Valley Tarot Deck
Madame Polly
Ultima Online
Purple Moon, "Rockett's First Day of School"*
Toshio Iwai "Compositions on the Table"
The Intruder
Sissyfight 2000
BabyWorld
Noodle by Josh Portway
The Sims
Josephine Starrs & Leon Cmielewski
Summons to Surrender
Bang Bang (you're not dead?)
Blacklash
memebots
// LUCKYKISS_XXX > adult kisekae ningyou sampling ^_^
Iconica - Troy innocent
Lara Croft Stripped Bare

READING ASSIGNMENTS DUE FOR NEXT WEEK:
Interface Culture, Stephen Johnson
6) Agents, Pg. 173 –205
Harold Cohen and AARON
Jaron Lanier

RELATED LINKS FOR NEXT WEEK:
Databodies, Genitals and Living Forever
visible/visible
Eliza
Noako Tosa, Neruo Baby
Eduardo Kac
LifeSpaces
Craig Reynolds, Boids
Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau projects
Creature Labs
Emergence, An Active Essay

OPTIONAL LINKS:
Pattie Maes, Artificial Life meets Entertainment: Lifelike Autonomous Agents

RECOMMENDED READING:
Hamlet On The Holodeck, Janet Murray
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Week 10 (6/5)
Artificial Intelligence, artificial life, past and present representation of
human-machine hybrids, Distopias and Utopias.

Background history to AI and AL
--To understand the development of Artificial intelligence, artificial life and the fictional portrayals of human-machine hybrids we will retrospect back to a key development in Western history: the shift away from a god-centered and controlled universe to a secular, science-based universe.

Examples: (Powerpoint)

God/Christ
--Before the 16th Century the belief was in divine providence, that god would provide and was running the show.
Science/technology
--With the "Age of Reason" and the rise of the "exact sciences" during the Italian Renaissance the belief shifts to that of progress through science, that science would provide and could figure out the natural world and thus control it.
--Both beliefs were in a unilinear progress of the human race and with the onslaught of the Industrial Revolution the scales were tipped overwhelming towards Science/technology.
--
Terms and technologies that appear at or around the time of the Industrial Revolution:
AUTOMATIC: Acting or operating in a manner essentially independent of external influence or control. Self-regulating.Acting or done without volition or conscious control; involuntary.
AUTOMATE:
To convert to automatic operation. To control or operate by automation.
AUTOMATION:
The automatic operation or control of equipment, a process, or a system. The techniques and equipment use dot achieve automatic operation or control. The condition of being automatically controlled or operated.
STANDARDIZATION: A narrow response to any situation, systematic response.
Without standardization there would be no mass production or mass communication.
AUTONOMOUS: Not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent. Independent in mind or judgment; self directed.
--It is during this increased mechanization and atomization that artists and visionaries begin to depict and even build mechanical human-machine hybrids.

Examples: (Powerpoint)
1) God holds it up,2) Mechanical universe, 3) Daily Mechanization 4) Chrystal Palace
Automatons (from the Book Zone)
Futurists: Deparo 6) Coctail by Marinetti

AUTOMATON: A self-operating machine or mechanism, esp. a robot. One that behaves or responds in a mechanical way.
An Automation is a machine that contains its own principle of motion.

ANDROID: Having human features. An automaton made from biological materials to resemble a human being. Frankenstein would be an an example of an Android.
ROBOT: In 1924 the Czech writer, Karel Capek coined the term, "robot"
and exchanged the word Automaton for Robo.
History of the Robot
Example:
From Christine Tamblin's CD-ROM Women and Technology, Robot
ROBOT: A mechanical device that may resemble a human being and is capable of performing a variety of often complex tasks on a command or by being programmed in advance. A machine or device that operates automatically or by remote control.
CYBORG: A human being who has certain physiological processes aided or controlled by mechanical or electronic devices.
--"
In terms of the general shift from thinking of individuals as isolated from the "world" to thinking of them as nodes on networks, the 1990s may well be remembered as the beginning of the cyborg era."

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: The branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
--Artificial Intelligence has its roots in “cybernetics”, which was coined by Norber Weiner in 1943. Cybernetics, originally, consisted of the study of biological and artificial control systems.
--Cybernetics is concerned with discovering what mechanisms control systems and, in particular, how systems regulate themselves.
--There are several programming languages that are known as AI languages because they are used almost exclusively for AI applications. The two most common are LISP and Prolog.
LISP Resource site

Artificial Intelligence Chronology
From the video series “The Machine that Changed the World:
Episode IV -- The Thinking Machine.
http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/TMTCTW.html - ThinkingMachine

Alan Turing
--One of the first persons to actively entertain the notion of artificial intelligence was  Alan Turing
--With the computer, Turing wanted to simulate human thought which is symbolic.
--The metaphor of the brain. Turing entertains the metaphor that the computer was like a human brain, not just because it could calculate but because it could use logical processes to complete computational tasks.

--Believed that non mathematical projects could be done by the computer
--Experimented with word processing.


The role of AGENCY and AGENTS in Artificial Intelligence
--In the realm of the computer, agents are an important component in the drive to create artificial intelligence and, in extreme form, artificial life.
AGENCY: The condition of being in action, operation; 2) the means or mode of acting, instrumentality
AGENT: one that acts or has the power   authority to act 2) one empowered to act for or represent another; 3) a means by which something is done or caused; an instrument; 4) a representative or official of a government.

--An agent is “A program that performs some information-gathering or-processing task in the background. Typically, an agent is given a very small and well-defined task.
--Some basic agents at work today are web browsers, search engines, cookies.

Notes from Interface Culture, Agents, Chapter 6, Pg. 173 –205 Stephen Johnson
--
Johnson points out that:
--in the first twenty years of interface design the dominant model was architectural, binary code as a space to be explored.
--in contemporary interface design binary code is closer to an individual with a temperament, a physical appearance, an aptitude for learning—the computer as personality, not a space.

ANTHROPOMORPHISM: This push to give computers human-like qualities, to personify them is driven by the concept of anthropomorphism, which essentially means giving inanimate objects human qualities.

--Johnson describes three kinds of agents prevalent today
1)    
the shut-in agents, ones which stay at home on your computer and work behind the scenes for you in your daily computing activities.
2)   
The tourist agent, one that roams the net in search of news and information to bring back home.
3)   
The extrovert agent, one that is very chatty with competing interests on your computer and comparing stories.
--The important distinction to make about agents is that unlike the GUI which employs visual metaphors used in the direct manipulation of objects, agents work in the background indirectly manipulating data.

Jaron Lanier Protests Agents
Lanier Protests Development of Agents

Example:
Lainer's Home Page
--Jaron Lanier, the pioneer of VR systems has been recently loudly protesting the destructive and invasive potentials of these intelligent agents of the new economy and government. He is fighting the development of agents and regards their existence as simply bad interface design.
--
Lanier is protesting what he calls the “cybernetic totalists”, those who work towards developing the computer as an independent agent, free of human contact, free to take over greater and greater numbers of decisions regarding human life and culture.
1) That cybernetic patterns of information provide the ultimate and best way to understand reality.
2) That people are no more than cybernetic patterns.
3) That subjective experience either doesn't exist, or is unimportant because it is some sort of ambient or peripheral effect.
4) That what Darwin described in biology, or something like it, is in fact also the singular, superior description of all creativity and culture.
5) That qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of information systems will be accelerated by Moore's Law.
And finally, the most dramatic:
6) That biology and physics will merge with computer science (becoming biotechnology and Nan technology), resulting in life and the physical universe becoming mercurial; achieving the supposed nature of computer software.
--He objects to the development and marketing of agents being done at MIT
.
Example:
Software Agents Group MIT Media Labs
--What is at stake in the “cybernetic totalist” agent is the level of power and intelligence given to the feedback mechanism of the agent so that it is trained to recognize only a very narrow set of patterns in the responses of the Contactees and judge them as acceptable within the set of prescribed patterns.
Example:
Tele Immersion Inniciative
--To create a liberated agent, the feedback mechanism needs to be designed to give feedback that contains the widest variety of responses of the Contac tees so that the narrow-minded demographer/agent of mass media and culture does not dominate the cultural landscape with clichés.

Testing grounds for AI in real life: Game AI
--John Laird, a professor of computer science at the U of Michigan, coauthored a manifesto of sorts for the research AI community, arguing that gaems provide a perfect environment for experiments in human-level AI—
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Artificial life
Example:
A brief outline of some of the issues involved with AL and AI. --Professor Manovich
Artificial Life vs. Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Life (AL)  -- Artificial Intelligence (AI)
takes bottom-up approach -- takes top-down approach
goal: to understand low-level life collectives (such as ants) -- goal: to understand human mind
uses computer as a simulation tool -- uses computer as a paradigm of what mind is like
simulates populations -- simulates individual mind
emergent properties: complex and -- reductionism: mind is reduced to symbols and rules
unpredictable global behavior emerging out of interaction of a population of simple elements

Cloning and the Prosthetics of Immortality
--In our contemporary digital culture we seem to have developed a powerful obsession with transcending our physical bodies and pushing towards the so called “post human”  era dominated by post human technologies.

The bigl "NO" to Biotechnology
US Government's ban on human cloning
Example:
--Cloning bill debate on Capital Hill (Video clip from C-SPAN)

--Cats cloned

--"IBM Creates a Tiny Circuit out of Carbon" New York Times
.

Artists approach to the hybrid body:
--There are a number of artists working today, both in fictional and real endeavors, who are taking up the call for evolving the body into “post human” era, the time when we will have merged our biological bodies completely with our post-human technologies.
--In the United Kingdom, telematic pioneer Roy Ascott has been pushing artificial life art based on self-replicating and evolving software algorithms.
--In Los Angeles, Max More and his group of “Extropians” plot out digitally driven life extension techniques in their battles against entropy.
Example:
SRL (video tape)
--I n San Francisco, Mark Pauline and the Survival Research Laboratory (SRL) have for the past several years staged battles between lumbering, fire-belching robots that stand in for the bodies of human warriors that pull apart animal carcasses and eventually destroy each other.
Stelarc
http://stelarc.va.com.au/
--The Australian performance artist, Stelarc, claims the body is obsolete. He has spent the last two decades attempting to augment and transcend his physicality through technology.
--"It is no longer meaningful to see the body as a site for the psyche or the social, but rather as a structure to be monitored and modified-the body not as subject but as object-NOT AN OBJECT FOR DESIRE BUT AS AN OBJECT FOR DESIGNING."
Orlan
http://www.cicv.fr/creation_artistique/online/orlan/

--The French performance artist and writer, Orlan, reconstructs her body in the image of various historical ideals of female beauty. She has the forehead of the Mona Lisa, the lips of Botecelli's Venus. Orlan regards these cosmetic surgeries as performances and remains awake while undergoing reconstructive surgery, maintaining a consciousness and awareness of what is happening to her body.
--
She has said that she has donated her living body to art and culture, making what some would say is a monster of herself in order to prepare society for the changes which lie ahead. 
Example:
Wim Delvoye's "Cloaca,"
--A contraption that proceses food from the start of the digestive cylce to the finish. Mister Delvoye professes that art and life are equally futile.
Harold Cohen and Arron
Aaron, the first robot artist, is the brainchild of UCSD Professor Harold Cohen, the British abstract painter.
Honda Humanoid Robots
Sumo Wrestling Robots
Mark Paline & Survival Research Labs (Survival Research Labs in San Fransisco)
Cyborg Manifesto

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Imagining human-machine hybrids in the "post human" future
Fictional Portrayals of Human-machine hybrids and their engagement in Distopian and Utopian Worlds.

A Technoid Beastiary of Hybrid Beings, Past and Present:
--There are many depictions of human-machine hybrids in the history of art, but it is not until the Industrial Revolution and the increased mechanization do these depictions take on a poignancy and believability that such a being could possibly exist one day
.
Utopian and Distopian views of the human-machine hybrid
Distopian
--More often than not, fictional and artistic depictions of these hybrid beings are fearful ones which depict them beings as having been given agency by humans which allows them to evolve and gain independence from their human makers.
--Once they gain independence and intelligence, the typical doomed distopian scenario is that the human’s creation turns out to be a monster that goes amok and destroys its maker and, in many recent apocalyptic movies, the world.
Distopian "Robot"
"The word robot was coined in 1921 by Karel Capek, a Czech dramatist, for his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). In Capek's nightmare vision, the robots were invented to save humans from having to work, but they developed a distaste for imperfect and frail humanity and took over the world. If not downright evil, they were certainly sinister creatures whose values had nothing to do with man's. Contrary to the purpose for which they had been created, they tore down what humans had taken centuries to build, and in the end destroyed mankind itself.
Utopian
--Early techno Utopian scenarios involving the human-machine hybrid typically are based on the increase in our daily lives of autonomous machines, or robots, that will liberate us all from work and give us unlimited leisure.
Example:
The Jetsons Meet the Flintstones (iMovie)
Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein”
--Shelly imagined one of the first androids, a human-like creature constructed out of biological parts to resemble a human. Frankenstein is one of the first instances of a human's creation that is given agency only to have the "monster" develop a free will with that agency and then turn on its maker and try to destroy him or her.

--"A young Swiss student discovers the secret of animating lifeless matter and, by assembling body parts, creates a monster who vows revenge on his creator after being rejected from society."

Futurism
Futurism was the first attempt in the 20th century to reinvent life as it was being transformed by new technologies and conceive of a new race in the form of machine-extended man.

Notable artistic portrayals of the human-machine hybrid that fall into the distopian or utopian camp or both:
--A very common theme running throughout a majority of these representations is the blurring of the boundaries between human and machines and the fear of the human- machine hybrid will take control of their human makers.
--In 1816 the German writer E.l. Hoffmann starts the literary trope of the theme of the danger of and allure of mistaking machines for humans.
--This fictional metaphor is carried into the future in such films as 2001 Space Odyssey, Blade Runner and A.I.

Fritz Lang’s “Metropolis” 1926
Metropolis Walkthrough
Plot review of Metropolis
Metropolis falls into both camps of Distopia and Utopia. A robot plays the key role in the battle.

Stanley Kubrick"s "2001 Space Odysse"
Macintosh Commercial rip off of "2001 Space Odyssey (Quicktime)
Artificial Intelligence Represented in the movies
"Terminator I" and II
Matrix (Quicktime Trailer)
Steven Speilberg’s “AI” (video clip)
Ridley Scott’s “Blade Runner” (Video clip)
--In this distopianist Sci Fi flick human-machine hybrids are of a decidedly negative lot. These replicants (perhaps making reference to what cloned human beings might be in the future) raise havoc among the humans because they are so lifelike and can infiltrate the human sphere under this cover of realism.
-- I will now show a clip depicts a romantic encounter between a human (Harrison Ford's character)
and a cyborg/replicant.

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Week 11

Final Exam

Final Exam date: Tuesday, June 11th 3 - 6 PM in Center Hall Room 109

Practice Exam for review.

(bring 2-3 blue books & writing implement)
The final in-class exam is open book and open notes. It will be based on lectures and readings. The test will consist of multiple choice questions and few short essays. You should do well if you attend all lectures, take notes, and complete the assigned readings on time.

Thanks for your interest in learning. Good Luck!