Studio-based Digital Audio Production, Post Production, Distribution, Presentation

Note: The following is a general outline for
multi-track, stereo digital audio production and is not geared towards specific hardware, software or recording studio configurations.

Rules of thumb when recording and editing digital and analogue audio:
> clean signal in, clean signal out (particularly, with analogue audio)
> know, as best you can, the end use situation of your audio recording, i.e., playback machines & listening environment.
> make every effort in each step of the editing process to maintain the full frequency range of your original recording
> if there is any mid to high end noise in your original recording, don't immediately attempt to eliminate it by EQ-ing out parts of the mid and high
> play back your final master recording on the lowest and highest common denominator of machines
> excellent file management skills are a must!
> "When in doubt, shout." --Buddha

Set up:
familiarization with hardware and software, computer specification, studio configurations, signal flow and connections, communication between input and output devices (Midi/USB, etc) patch bays, connections: XLR, jack, balanced/unbalanced, digital (USB, Firewire
, etc
); monitoring using headphones and speakers.

Audio Recording: choosing the right microphones for individual recording situations, mic patterns, microphone techniques (close, distant, stereo, mono).

Importing audio in multiple digital and analogue formats
: sample rates, compatibility, bit depth, stereo & mono sources; converting analogue sources to digital.

Accessing sound libraries: what's the law on sampling, saving samples, file format compatibility issues.

Working with Virtual and Freestanding instruments: (time permitting) virtual instruments inside the computer and freestanding hardware: keyboards, amplified instruments, and a wide range of digital and analogue audio generating devices.

Audio Editing:
recording and editing audio within the virtual and hardware studio environment: inputting, editing and outputting using multi track, non linear, non destructive editing software; audio processing, normalizing, etc.

Effects: using internal plug-ins and external effects units: reverb, flange, delay, gating, compression; how to set up FX sends and levels of effects.

Preparing your project for output: identifying end use, playback machines, and listening environment; and the proper format(s) for end use.

EQ: The central role of EQ in recording, editing and mastering your audio.

Mastering for multiple formats and listening situations: CD-ROM, DVD, analogue media, WWW, broadcasting, pod casting, live performance, others.

Distribution strategies:
of recorded media (CD-ROM, DVD, etc.), for streaming on the Net, for broadcast, for pod casts, and others.


Sound Reiforcement Handbook, Second Edition, Written For Yamaha By Gary Davis & Ralph Jones
Sensation and Perception by E. Bruce Goldstein, . - 2001 - 680 pages
The Soundscape, Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World, 1977, R . Murray Schafer, Destiny Books
Hearing Cultures, Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity, 2005 Edited by Veit Erlmann, Berg Publishing


BIBLIOGRAPHY (selected)-

Attali, Jacques.  NOISE: The Political Economy of Music. University of Minnesota, 1989.
Bartlett, Bruce. Stereo Microphone Technique.
Berendt, Joachim-Ernst. The Third Ear: On Listening to the World. Element Books, 1988.
Burlingame, Jon. Sound and Vision.Billboard, 2000.
Cartwright, Lisa. Screening the Body: Tracing Medicine's Visual Culture. University of Minnesota, 1995.
Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Prentice Hall, 1997.
Chion, Michel. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. Columbia University, 1994.
Chion, Michel. The Voice of Cinema. Columbia University, 1999.
Cott, Jonathan. Conversations with Karlheinz Stockhausen. Paladium, 1976.
Fiumara, Gemma Corradi. The Other Side of Language: A philosophy of listening.
Griffin, John. Echoes of Bats and Men. Norton, 1959. 
Hindle, Brooke. Emulation and Invention. Norton, 1981.
Holman, Tomlinson. Sound for Film and Television. Focal Press, 1997.
Holmes, Thomas. Electronic and Experimental Music. Scribners, 1985.
Khan, Douglas. Noise Water Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts. MIT Press, 2001.
LaBelle, Brandon. Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art. Continuum, 2006.
Martin, Elizabeth. Architecture as a Translation of Music. Princeton, 1994.
Maur, Karin. The Sound of Painting: Music in Modern Art. Prestel, 1999.
Murch, Walter. In the Blink of an Eye: A Perspective on Film Editing. Silman-James Press, 1995.
Ondaatje, Michael. The Conversations: Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. Alfred A Knopf, 2002.
Russell, Robert and Starr, Cecile. Experimental Animation.Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.
Schaefer, R. Murray. The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Destiny, 1994.
Sokol, Mike. The Acoustic Musicians' Guide to Sound Reinforcement and Live Recording. Prentice-Hall, 1998.
Stockhausen, Karlheinz. Stockhausen on Music. Marion Boyars, 1989.
Toop, David. Ocean of Sound: Aether Talk, Ambient Sound and Imaginary Worlds. Serpent's Tail, 1995.
Weis, Elisabeth and Belton, John (ed.). Film Sound Theory and Practice. Columbia University, 1995. 
Weiss, Allen (ed.) Experimental Sound & Radio, MIT Press.
Weiss, Allen. Phantasmic Radio, MIT Press.
Whitehead, Gregory and Kahn, Douglas (ed.). Wireless Imagination: Sound, Radio, and the Avant-Garde. MIT Press, 1992.

DISCOGRAPHY  (selected)-

Microphony and Musique Concrete--
Schaeffer, Pierre. "Etude Pathetique" (1948) from Schaeffer: Parole et Musique. INA/GRM 9106 LP, 1982.
Schaeffer, Pierre.  "Etude aux Tourniquets" (1948) from 1er Panorama de Musique Concrete. Ducretet Thomson LP320C100.
Schaeffer, Pierre and Henry, Pierre. “Erotica” from Symphonie pour un homme seul (1949-1950).  Philips 6510 012 LP.
Henry, Pierre. "Bidule en Ut" and "Fantasia" from Microphone Bien Tempere (1951), INA AM006.08LP, 1975.
Henry, Pierre. Voile d'Orphée (1951-1958). Philips 836 887LP, 1973.
Varese, Edgard. Interpolation I to Desérts (1954) from The Varese Record, Finnadar SR9018LP, 1977.
Ferrari, Luc. "Music Promenade" from Presque Rien (1969). OHM, Ellipsis Arts CD3670.
Xenakis, Iannis. "Diamorphoses" (1957) from Electronic Music EMF CD003, 1997.
Xenakis, Iannis. "Bohor" (1962) from Electronic Music EMF CD003, 1997.
Bayle, Francois. "Erosphere" (1979). INA/GRM 9108 LP, 1982.
Chion, Michel. "Requiem" (1973) from L'Opera Concret. INA/GRM MCE 001CD, 1998. 
Karlheinz Stockhausen. "Kontakte," Candide CE 31022 LP.
Karlheinz Stockhausen. "Microphonie," Columbia.

Association for Recorded Sound Collections
Intute Arts & Humanities