3rd & Final Exam

“Art will break your heart. So What. So will a good meal”
        --Terry Allen
“Rational thought is a failed experiment and should be phased out.”
        --William S. Burroughs
 “Everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes”
        --Andy Warhol

Chapter 10
Television Age 1
1941

 
TELEVISION: tele from the Greek word meaning far + vision, hence, vision from afar.
 
TELEVISONS: records, retrieves and manipulates reality through electromagnetic representations.
 
VIDEO: from the Latin word meaning to see
 
VIDEO TAPE: records these electromagnetic waves and then displays them on a vidicon tube.
 
Brief Chronology of the development of TELEVISION
--1884 Invention of the Nipkow disk establishes scanning technique, as step toward transmission of images.
--1906 Lee de Forest develops three-element Audion tube for wireless transmission of sound, RADIO.
--1907 De Forest Radio Telephone Company begins broadcasts in New York
--1920s & 30s experiments in developing television
--1941 Television goes on commercial basis.
--1957 Presidential Inauguration recorded for the first time by videotape.
--1960 First color television broadcast
 
BROADCAST: electromagnetic, wireless transmission of a television signals (satellite transmission is a form of Broadcast).
 
CLOSED CIRCUIT TV: a live video signal coming from a video camera, what Pelfrey calls “pure television” which has not been filtered.
 
CLOSED CIRCUIT TV: an example is the surveillance camera in the 7-11 Store or security cameras in banks.
 
PURE TELEVISION: unedited, unfiltered live television
 
BACKGROUND: “refers to the unintended and uncontrollable glimpses of reality that unexpectedly, yet inevitably, intrude into television imagery, regardless of filters.”
 
Manipulative qualities of TV:
EVENT:
“the original fact or process that occurs, or has occurred in the past, in front of the television camera.
 
FILTER: “the means by which the original event is edited or otherwise manipulated in any way before it appears as an image on the television screen…”
--three types of filters: Home, drama, and personalities
 
ASPECTS OF TELEVISION AND MEDIATED CULTURE:
--For the first time in Western history, the primary source of culture-building images is located within the home itself.
--Television is our contemporary form of realism.
--Television is the most real in the ongoing tradition of perspective images created by Western art and science since the time of Brunelleschi: they are the instant moving perspective images…
--Television today is our common culture where we get our icons, our myths our history, our entertainment, our social images.
--Television takes “pure TV” and transforms it through
the process of filtering or socializing vision.
--Television (video) can go forward and backward in time.
 
“STEREOTYPES: “as applied to people, are fixed pictures or ideas about how a particular group (ethnic, religious, or racial thinks or behaves, a picture that simplifies, often to the point of character, and prohibits the recognition of individual, personal uniqueness.”
 
1960s – to present
 
VIDEO ART: is a time-based electronic art form that uses the video camera, video signal processors, video projectors and monitors (TV) as the primary medium for the production and presentation of artists’ work.
 
VIDEO ART: as an art form began in the late 1960s when portable video cameras (PortaPacks) became available on a consumer level.
--with access to equipment, Video artists began to challenge the TV Networks representations of reality.
--cable TV and Camcorder Boom in the Early Eighties further intensified the production of video art
 
Three basic approaches to the production of video art:
1) where the artist/performer is subject                  
2) where the environment is subject
3) where the abstract synthesized image is subject
Any of these approaches however may be combined within a single work.
 
Some Formal elements of VIDEO ART:
--real time or time delay (closed circuit system)
--pre recorded or “taped” video
--single channel and multi-channel video, meaning one or more monitors on which the video signal is viewed (the signal can be taped or live)
-- performance video art
--installation video art
 
TAPED VIDEO: pre recorded and typically edited to video tape and played back on a single or multichannel setup.
--single channel and multi-channel video, meaning one or more monitors on which the video signal is viewed (the signal can be taped or live
 
VIDEO INSTALLATTION: typically involves live cameras (closed circuit) and taped video, temporarily installed into a particular place and may or may not involve performance.
 
PERFORMANCE VIDEO: a live performance in which video is an integral part of the action. Performance video can be done just for the camera and recorded to tape or for a live audience.
 
DIGITAL VIDEO ART: video, which has been edited on a computer and in many cases, the images are not shot on a camera but are generated within the computer itself.
 
Chapter 11
The Television Age II:
Completing the Agenda of Modernism

 
Post World War II Avant Garde Art
Last half of the Modernist Movement to early 1970s
 

--The Guggenheim Museum was built just for showing new, mostly abstract modern art.
--An Example of Modern Architecture, emphasis on geometric abstraction
 
Points on last half of Modernist movement:
--after WWII, the last half of the Modernist movement (up to the early 1970s) can be characterized by increasingly blurred boundaries between high and low art and between mass media and art.
--the last half of the Modernist movement saw the development of several different abstract art movements.
--also, time-based art forms, such as performance, video art, earth art and avant garde theater are developed as major alternatives to traditional art forms.
 
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM: the term was coined in 1946 and was used to describe all types of non-geometric abstraction
 
Two main types of abstract expressionism:
COLOR FIELD PAINTING:
consists of simple, unified blocks of color.
 
GESTURAL PAINTING or ACTION PAINTING with gestural painting, the artist approaches the canvas with the movement of their whole body instead of just the eye and hand.
--Jackson Pollack broke with the centuries old technique of painting on an easel by employing his method of action painting.
--“Pollack abandoned the paintbrush and stretched canvas. Using various kinds of paint, including ordinary house paint, he either poured them out or dropped them from a stick as he moved across the huge canvases stretched out on the floor of his studio.”
--Pollack became a media event in Life Magazine
 
PERFORMANCE ART: a time-based multi-media art form that is done live and the performers are not acting but are themselves.
 
PERFORMANCE ART: the artist’s body is typically the medium and in many cases the audience participates in the action which is planned but not often rehearsed and can involve chance.
 
PERFORMANCE ART: typically involves “real time” and the performers are not acting and are themselves, working with subject matter from their lives.
 
EARTHWORKS: also known as land art, an artistic concept that emerged in the late 1960s in reaction to gallery-bound art and the limiting art market.
--land art literally existed beyond or outside the gallery space and used land itself as the physical subject of art.
 
ASSEMBLAGE:
“The trend in modern art to assemble many different kinds of materials to create an artwork that usually becomes both sculpture and painting.
 
POP ART: “the term was first used in Britain during the 1950s and referred to the interests of artists in the images of mass media, advertizing, comics and consumer products.”
 
POP ART: “closed the gap between the mass-produced image and art.”
--Lichtenstein used the half tone dot process for making paintings
--his paintings illustrate what he called the industrialization of art.
 
SILK SCREEN PRINTING: a color stencil printing process in which non-printing areas are blocked out and the color squeezed through a screen on to paper or cloth.
--Pop artists used commercial printing processes like silk screen printing to make their art.
 
A brief and incomplete list of some of the art forms to come out of the last half of the Modernist movement:
FLUXUS ART, OP ART, CONCEPTUAL ART, BODY ART, HAPPENINGS, MINIMALISM, AVANT GARDE FILM, KINETIC SCULPTURE, PHOTO REALIST PAINTING, et. al.
 
Conclusion on the end of the modern movement and the Avant Garde
--“By the late 1960s the mass media had welcomed and begun to absorb the avant garde as part of its own appetite for entertainment, news and celebrities.”
--“How can the individual art object, which has traditionally represented the individuality of the artist, have any real meaning if it is multiplied indefinitely in the mass media?”
--by the early 1970s the avant garde no longer had the power to shock with the power of the new because it had become powerless by its absorption into the dominant culture and into mass media.
 
Chapter 12

The Television Age III:   
The Ideology and Imagery of Advertising

 
--“America does not run, aesthetically, on avant-garde art, America runs on the art of advertising.
--“After World War II, America moved beyond factory oriented industries and became the first society based primarily on neworganizational and informational technologies.
--“American popular and avant-garde art have accompanied this spread of the influence of American technology over all the globe.”
--”advertising images provide meaning, the kind of meaning that comes from the experience of myth--the meaning given by the icon aspect of art.
 
Two phases in which advertising connects technological environment of products, organizations, and programming to personal patterns of perception and use:
Phase 1: the advertisement attaches a sense of power and personality to the product, organization, or program
Phase 2: it attempts to connect this sense of power and personality…to the personality of the individual who experiences the advertisement.
 
COMMERCIAL MOVIE: commercials  that function like  movies by transmitting cultural myths and personal experience, but with the added function of selling a product.
--Commercials draw on the entire tradition of film (which includes painting and photography)
--Movie directors also produce commercials
--Commercials draw on the entire tradition of film (which includes painting and photography)
--Movie directors also produce commercials
 
MOVIE COMMERCIAL: a movie that functions like a commercial by selling a product while also transmitting a cultural myth.
--manipulating desire through a variety of techniques such as glamour and sex appeal.
 
Commercials have a strong connection to avant garde painting
--Surrealism fusing reality and dream
--unlike surrealists who wanted to liberate the subconscious, the surrealistic commercial only wishes to fix the product’s appeal in the subconscious.
--Futurist ideal of a fusion between human and machine
--Personality as part of the avant garde makes its way into commercials
 --Pastiche, Quoting from the history of painting

From John Berger's "Ways of Seeing"
“Any work of art ‘quoted’ by publicity serves two purposes.
--Art is a sign of affluence; it belongs to the good life; it is part of the furnishing which the world gives to the rich and the beautiful.
--a work of art also suggests a cultural authority…an oil painting belongs to the cultural heritage; it is  reminder of what it means to be a cultivated European.
 

Chapter 13
The Television Age IV: The Challenges of
POST-MODERNISM
Early 1970s to the Present

 
--by the early 1970s there appeared a consensus among many artists and critics that the entire tradition of avant-garde art from  Manet to Minimalism and Photo-realism had reached a stage of completion, and potential exhaustion.
--Capitalism absorbed the avant-garde and turned high art into a commodity generated by the “art industry”
 
POST-MODERNISM: “It differs from Modernism by an aggressive willingness to borrow from and combine with past styles of art rather than constantly searching for “the next step” in a logical evolution of styles.”
 
POST-MODERNISM: rejection of the idea of originality and the notion of artist as creative genius working in isolation.
 
POST-MODERNISM: maintains the avant-garde tradition of experimentation and embraces the chaotic elements of Modernism such as fragmentation, ephemerality and discontinuity, but rejects the Modernist notion of creating a totally new form.
 
POST-MODERNISM: the tendency to challenge the dominance of painting as the privileged form of art. No one style or way of working is any better than any other, all are equal in value.

NOTE: collage and montage are the main methods used by POST-MODERN artists to combine all styles and materials.--collage and montage are the main methods used by POSTMODERN artists to combine all styles and materials.
 
Some formal elements of
POST-MODERN art:

 
PASTICHE: “a work executed in the style of another artist. An effective pastiche is not an exact copy but combines elements of several of an artist’s works into a new composition.
IRONY: to express something different from and often opposite to the literal meaning; Incongruity between what might be expressed and what actually occurs.
APPROPRIATION: to take (appropriate) someone else’s work and incorporate it into one’s own work.
SELF REFERENTIALITY: art that refers to itself and nothing more.
The ongoing process by which the popular arts borrow and sometimes invert, aspects of avant-garde art.
 
SOME POST-MODERN ART FORMS:
 
CONCEPTUAL ART:
sometimes referred to as “idea art”, conceptual art is concerned with art as idea and is not concerned with making an art object in the traditional sense by using non-art materials and processes.
Examples of CONCEPTUAL ART:
 
TECHING HSIEH,  life styles:                                                     
--a year living in a cage in his New York loft, with no books, television, orradio                                                                           --a year punching a time clock each hour, twenty-four hours a day  --a year living totally outdoors in New York City. 
 
JOHNATHAN BOROFSKY,
“Counting Piece” Started in 1973, the idea was to just start counting on paper and continue indefinitely.
 
EARTHWORKS: also known as land art, an artistic concept that emerged in the late 1960s.
--land art literally existed beyond or outside the gallery space and used land itself as the physical subject of art.
 
FEMINIST ART: by the early 70s,  many women artists began to articulate and explore a different approach to art based on feminist principles.
--using post-modernist strategies Feminist artists re-evaluate the artistic as well as the social history of women.
--”Feminist art took an especially critical stance toward the overemphasis on art without social or human relevancy, essentially modernist art of abstraction and formal invention.”
 
PROCESS ART: art which the main focus is on the process rather than the creation of a precious, valuable art object. Process art is time-based and ephemeral.
 
Some characteristics of Post-Modern Painting
-- Post-Modern painting uses pastiche, appropriation, irony and self referentiality. 
--Post-Modern painting is more concerned with subject matter than modernist painting.
 
Post-Modern art makes its way into mass media
--In the early 1980s, Post-Modern art finds its widest audience in Mass Media, particularly through the video cassette tape and cable TV.
--through television artists of all kinds gained access to the realm of mass media and thus gained a voice in popular culture.
--Video artists were the first to bridged the gap between Avant-garde art and Commercial Video.
--in the early 1980s MTV and the VCR play a significant roll in the combining of avant garde art and mass media.
 
AFTERWARDS:
TOWARD THE COMPUTER AGE

 
MARSHAL MCCLUHEN: states that all technology is essentially just extensions of our bodies.
 
COMPUTER: a device that computes esp. a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed operations or assembles, stories, correlates , or otherwise processes information.
 
COMPUTERS: the first meaning referred to the women who operated the first computers by inserting the computer cards into the machines.
--”the computer is…the next generation of Western art’s perspective machines”
 
VIRTUAL REALITY: completely computer generated environment in which the participant interfaces with his or her senses and mind through a variety of electronic signal processors and prosthetic devices connect to a computer.
 
CYBERNETICS: theoretical  study of communication and control processes  in biological, mechanical, and electronic systems, especially the comparison of biological and mechanical means.
 
CYBORG:  cybernetic organism, a human being  who has certain physiological processes aided or controlled by mechanical or electronic devices.

the end  Thanks for your interest in learning and have a great break. Onward!