Second Exam
Tuesday June 21

Chapter 5
The Photographic Age I:
Photography, Academic Painting, and the Crisis of Realism
Between 1800 and 1905


ROMANTICISM: 1) a movement in the early 19th century culture against earlier rationalism, Classicism and mechanisation. It sought to elevate the fantastic, the sublime and the pleasurable. It asserts the primacy of the individual's experience and the self-conscious isolation of the artist after the fall of patronage.2) _______________  is essentially a revolt against the increasing mechanization and industrialization of life and the control the state and employers had over the workers. 3) _____________ is an idealization of nature, picturesque, love of nostalgia mystery and drama.

By the early 19th century it had been broadened to include an enthusiasm and awe of nature. a political support for liberty, and opposition to and fear of, industrialism, an interest in the exotic and primitive, nationalism; and a dissatisfaction with life and a desire a new means of artist expression.


Between 1839 and 1905

TWO CAMPS in response to this question about photography

1) Academic painting, used perspective to create an art that imitated the optical realism of Photography

--The subjects and the patrons of academic painters where the 19th century middle-class industrialists/capitalists in a new democracy


2) The other, avant garde art, broke with the perspective tradiotn and began to create new artistic languages that ultimaately opened up new views of reality as well as new forms of art.


ACADEMIES were elite institutions which formed a basis for professional artistic activity in Both Europe and America from the 16th century onwards. The growth of academies contributed to the demise of the guild sytem and established sytems of training and exhibitions that dominated  arttistic production during this time.


--By the late 16th century, academies became larger and more formal and were patronized by wealthy and powerful individuals who wished to be involved in the cultivation of the arts.


ACADEMIC: a descriptive phrase to refer to painting or sculpture created within an academy system. Academic art tended to be idealistic concerned mainly with grand historical themes. Avant garde artist made a point of rejecting it.


AVANT GARDE: A French military term that literally means "advance guarde," the scouting party in a military campaign that explores the unknown territory ahead of the main body of troops. 


AVANT GARDE art is art that deliberately overturns conventions, traditions or common practices in favor of something new.


As the power of the art academies began to collapse in the late 19th century--in Europe--young artists began to adopt rebellious stance as a matter of course. These artist came to be known as the avant garde and are

still referred to as such today.


The mechanization that came about during the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION replaced the work of the craftsman, and it began the trasformation of the physical social urban environment into one congenial to business and mass productuion


BOURGEOISIE is middle class. In Marxist theory, the social group opposed to the proletariat in the class struggle.


SALON: 1) a large room, such as a drawing room, used for receiving and entertaining guests. 2) a periodic gathering of people of social or intellectual distinction. 3) a hall or gallery for the exhibition of works of art.


Impact of Photogrpah

--In the 1840s Paul Nadar succeeded in taking the first photographs of Paris from a ballon

--this is evidence that photographs produce and new form a representing reality

--Photograph advances the western notion of the autonomous individual who

now has a camera and can go anywhere in nature.

--Photograhs are the newest form of mass media.

it allowed people news and views of parts of the world they could never see personally

--Photographs gave new views of human cultures, Exotic glimpses of Africa, China, Japan, etc.

--Photograph made everyone an artist. everyone could take pictures

--Paul Nadar Photographed the rich and famous, creating the "celebrity"

--In the 1850s the process for producing small 21/2 x 4 was invented

It was inexpensive and standardized the format which enabled lower middle class people to have their picture taken.


PROLETARIAT: working class people.

Gustove COURBET'S was a painter opposed to the academic style of painting and instead developed a frank realism which depicted actual fact of social inequality that the upper middle class did not want to see. He depicted the working class life with unflinching realism; he associated himself with this lower class of people and called himself a BOHEMIAN.

Chapter 6, The Photographic Age II:
Edouard Manet and the Birth of the the Avant-Garde

The painter, Edouard Manet, also challenged the limitations of the ACADEMIC style of photographic realism. Unlike other radical painters who rejected the ACADEMIC style of painting and associating with the upper class, Manet was a social insider.

Manet did not follow the academic standard of depicting an idealized world of the upper class, but rather, depicted common,
EVERYDAY, Parisians and scenes of MODERN city life in Paris.


EMILE ZOLA was one of the first art critics to write for daily newspapers and magazines who helped interpret the avant-garde to a gradually more sympathetic public.

LITHOGRAPH: literally means "stone drawing" a printmaking process involving drawing on a flat stone with a grease pencil. After treating it with chemicals, a printer could print hundreds of copies from the stone.


NEWS PAPERS and magazines helped to get avant-garde art into popular circulation. Duamier was one of the first generation of artists to use mass media as a popular art form.

Chapter 7
The Photographic Age III:
The Avant-Garde after Manet

IMPRESSIONISM: a general title given to painters working at the end of the 19th century in a spontaneous, naturalistic style with visible brushwork, light palette and open composition. It also refers to s specific group of artist working in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s who painted scenes of everyday life in this style.

IMPRESSIONISTS completely broke with the entrenched  traditions of the Academy and painted in the OPEN AIR directly from observation.


Claude Monet argued that the EYE was active in its contact with nature—it did not see mechanically like a CAMERA.  He insisted on painting the immediate sensations of perception.


The art of the IMPRESSIONISTS demontrates that any art no matter how innocent its intention be perceived as revolutionary and dangerous simply because it encourages people to see in a new way.


POST IMPRESSIONISM: a term used to describe modern art since Impressionism.  Those who followed the Impressionists were called Post Impressionists.

POST IMPRESSIONISTS such as Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Gaugan, took Impressionims beyond just optical sensation to include a radical new level of SUBJECTIVE FEELINGS and expressions.


Chapter 8
The Film Age I:

Movies and Photograph Transform the Mass Media


Technological & Scientific changes around the turn of the 19th century:

--1876 the telephone was invented, the wireless telegraph, bicycle

--1877 Thomas Edison's phonograph

--1880 the light bulb is invented

--Ford automobile was invented

--1884 the steam turbine

--1888 Kodak box camera invented

--1889 Eiffel Tower erected for the Paris World’s Fair

--1889 x-ray machine invented

--1892 diesel engine

--1895 movie camera

--1903 first powered flight by the Wright Brothers

--1905 Einstien's theory of relativity

--1909 first flight over the English Channel


--The halftone
process brakes down a photographic image on a metal plate into a series of dots.

--the halftone dot process became standardized by 1905 and all major newspapers in big cities in Europe and the US
where using them on a regular basis.

--the halftone dot process of printing quickly replaced artists hand-drawn images for newspapers and also the cumbersom process of making etchings and engravings.


Three important developments in mass media in 1905:

1) the first Nickelodeon opened in the United States

2) the halftone process that allowed photographs to be printed in mass publications

3) the French government had dropped its sole sponsorship and dominance of the Academy and Salon system.


ADVERTIZING became a final important segment of mass media art set in place during the film age. Workers in capitalist countries could now afford to buy goods and advertizing became part of mass media and selling of these goods. Consuming as a way of life is depected in these photo-based print media.

took over the role of the academy for portraying politics, life, celebraty, high society, etc.


CINEMA comes from the Lumiere brothers invention of an aparatus for shooting movies and for showing them. The device was called a cinematograph and was a movie camera and projector all in one.

--Unlike Edison's cumbersom studio camera, the Lumiere's camera was portable and could be taken anywhere in the world.

--The Lumiere brothers started the first forms of Documentary film because they could go anywhere with their camera


EDITING: is the process of cutting and rearranging sections of film into a final narrative form; later examination and reassembling of film.

NICKELODIAN is a theater devoted exclusively to the showing of movies.


EPIC  is an extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero.


Notes on the Movies

1) the frame  around the screen in the movie screen attempts to relate new medium to fine art.

2) the movies began not as an upper class form of high art, but began as a popular art form adopted by the lower class

3) academic painting influenced the development of cinema, the use of the panorama format, which is like cinemascope format of today’s movies.


John P Harris opend the first Nickelodian in 1905 in Pittsburgh, PA. With a year of this opening there thousands of nickelodeons across America

--this made movies a popular art form in America and Europe for mass audience.


Chapter 9
The Film Age II:

From Abstraction to Cultural revolution


It is generally agreed that the modern period started around 1850 and

continues on to 1970.


MODERNISM: "An artistic and literary movement loosely of the period 1850 to 1970 that was characterized by an attempt to break with traditional and academic ties to the classical and Renaissance worlds and produce work that reflected an industrialized, urban, politicized world that was characterized by change not tradition".


MODERNISM: "Characterized above all by change and progress, where successive avant-garde movements, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Dada, Surrealism, Expressionism, etc overthrow their predecessors".


MODERNITY: is the transient, the fleeting, the contingent, characterized by technological, social, political and artistic transformation through change and rejection of tradition.        

--The development of the Avant-garde parallels the development of Modernism.



--the avant-garde artist is supremely skeptical

--creates a cult of the new

--thrives on mocking the sacred cows of tradition

--thrives on provocation, criticism and revolt

--is a thoroughly modern creature, free from the past, addicted to the future

--the confronts audiences' sense of what is real

--the avant garde destroys the cherished ideals of the bourgeoisie


Roger Shattick, in his book the Banquet Years  identifies four major traits or impulses which drive the avant-garde.  These impulses can be seen in operation to greater or lesser degrees in artists up to the present.

1)  The cult of childhood established by the Romantics.

2)    Pervading note of humor.

3)    The eruption of dreams into waking experience.

4)    a cast of ambiguity or multiple interpretations of artworks.


These formal innovations are

--stream of consciousness novel (Freud was developing his theories of psychoanalysis then)

--simultaneous poetry




--the use of chance as a means of composing non linear structuring of works of art

--the use of comedy, irony, parody, humor, satire


These characteristics are hallmarks of MODERNISM





1900 - 1940


FAUVISM: A brief movement started in 1905 by the French artist Henri Matisse. Their paintings were inspired by Post Impressionists and characterized by a strong and pure use of color and flat pattern and anti-naturalism.


FAUVISM: got its name from the critics who called Matisse and his followers wild beasts, or fauves.

Note: in these forty years the number of art movements increased

exponentially with the Changes in the contemporary urban environment.


CUBISM started as a collaboration between Pablo Picasso and George Braque. Together they invented a new style of art that was based on the idea that objects should be looked at from all points of view and all those views painted in one painting.


CUBISM:  The first art movement of the twentieth century systematically to reconsider the conventions of painting since the Renaissance. It was an attempt to represent fully and exhaustively on a flat surface all aspects of what the artist saw in three dimensions.


COLLAGE (French, coller, "to paste") a composition created by pasting materials such as newspaper, wallpaper, photographs, cloth, etc. on a flat surface or canvas.


--Picasso and Braque abandoned Renaissance perspective in favor of multiple points of view

--The name cubism was a negative term used in 1908 by the art critic Loius Vauxcelles, who referred to Broque's works as "little cubes" , but  it (the name) was soon adopted by the artists as an adequate expression of their style


Two phases of CUBISM:

1st Phase 1908 - 1912

ANALYTIC CUBISM: this period was characterized by works which represented an analysis of real objects into their component parts.


2nd phase 1912

SYNTHETIC CUBISM: involves the use of the collage technique of pasting real objects together such as paper, photographs, advertisements and fabrics onto the canvas.


By 1912 Cubism had become an international style, being used in all the major cities of Europe


ABSTRACTION: the process by which subject matter is pared down or simplified in order to capture intrinsic or essential qualities; also any work of art that reflects this process.


NONOBJECTIVE ART: another term for abstract art, art that has no recognizable subject matter at all; also called "nonrepresentational" art.


FUTURISM: Italian avant-garde art movement launched in 1909 when Filippo Tommaso Marinettie published his "Futurist Manifesto" of incendary violence in the Parisian Daily newspaper, Le Figaro. .  The first futurist manifesto was a direct attack on the established values of the painting and literary accademies.  This


--Italian Futurism was born in the rebellion of young intellectuals, mostly in Milan, Italy, who were fed up with stagnated cutlure of 19th century Italy.

--The first Futurist manifesto was a direct attack on the established values of the painting and literary accademies. 


--Italian Futurism was obssessed with destroying tradition, glorified speed, dynamism, danger, war and the machine.


MANIFESTO: A public declaration of principles, ideals, intentions especially of a political nature.


MANIFESTOS of the avant garde typically were written in poetic form, often times using comic, absurdist, irrational, illogical irreverent language.

--Avant Garde Manefestos at this time willfully mocked tradition and the Academy and made bold statements about their new art forms.

--Italian Futurism was obssessed with destroying tradition, glorified speed, dynamism, danger, war and the machine.


Italian FUTURISM: is charactorized by the use of both static and time-based art forms with live performance art dominating their activities as a group.

--The dominant feature of Futurist art is the combining of different art forms from painting, to sculpture, to theater stage design, to performance, literature, music and dance in.

--All these art forms where combined in differnet kinds of

Italian Avant-garde theater.

--Futurism therefore sought an art, that would actively embrace artist, spectator, and art object in an acceptance of the emerging machine-dominated society of the early twentieth century stagnated culture of 19th century Italy.


CUBOFUTURISM: combination of cubism and Futurism


CONSTRUCTIVISM: the term refers to a type abstract sculpture originating in Russia shartly after the revoution of 1917.

--primary influence comes from Cubism and its angular and machine-like impersonality

--Geometric impersonality made it ideal for representing the values of the new Socialist regime.

--The revolution was based on a scientific view of history in which technology was to be the ultimate organizing principle in all areas of life.


Some Russian Constructivists:

Vladimir Tatlin, sculptor

Kasimir Malevish, painter

Dziga Vertov, filmaker

Sergei Eisenstein, filmaker 


1917 - 19

Germany between the Wars: German Expressionism Protests the Social Nightmare


GERMAN  EXPRESSIONISM: Art which distorts reality through exageration, vigorous and visible brushwork and strong colour, in order to exprss an artist's ideas or emotions.

Two Groups of German Expressionists in post WW1 Germany (after 1917):

1) Die Brucke (the Bridge group)

2) Der Blaue Reiter (the Blue Rider)

--Influenced by the Impressionists and Van Gogh

--Non European folk art


--The Avant Garde film Metropolis by Fritz Lang. Lang constructed sets that pictured a futuristic world in which workers live and labor in underground factories while owners live on the surface of the earth surrounded by luxury.


--Leni Riefenstahl's film, Triumph of the Will, is on the surface, a documentary film of the huge rallies and ceremonies staged by Hitler and the Nazi party.

--Hitler turned motion pictures into outright vehicles of state propaganda.



Dada & Surrealism


During World War I, an international group of young artists and writers fled to Zurich, in neutral Switzerland.


DADA: a Western European artistic and literary movement (1916-1922) that sought to discover an authentic reality by abolishing traditional culture and aesthetic/artistic forms.

CABARET VOLTAIRE: the origins of the DADA movement began in 1916 at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich with anti-art, politically charged anarchistic performances by this international group of artists.


DADA: was in reaction to the horror of the War and the onslaught of new technology, as well as to the "suffocating" aesthetics of Futurism and Cubism.

--these artists began to create a new kind of art

--art that was anti-art, anti-logical, anti-aesthetic, anarchistic, confrontational, shocking.


ANTI-ART: a stance held by DADA artists which completely rejected bourgeois notions of what is art and who is an artist.

--DADA rejected making well-crafted art with precious materials.

--DADA instead used cheap materials that were quickly exhausted, the junk of contemporary industrial culture


DADA artists used chance as an important part of the art process, in the hopes of producing work free of the oppression of traditional culture.


DADA: received its name by chance.

The German Doda artist, Richard Huelsenbeck, flipped through a French English Dictionary and randomly chose the word DaDa, which in French means "hobby horse", or "wet nurse". These artists attempted to set new standards for art and art making by abandoning traditional picture making in favor of performance work and other non-traditional gestures. They brought everyday objects into the galleries, arguing that as artists they could decide what was art.


Marcel Duchamp: Dada's leading theoretician mocked the traditional notion of what a museum is and what is art simply by signing an ordinary urinal and exhibiting it as sculpture.


Duchamp, a Frenchman, who was part of the American DADA movement, called these everyday objects ready-mades.


Three important contributions of Dada:

1) art as performance (or happenings)

2) art as environment

3) art as the chance combination of industrially produced objects and images (assemblage)



1924 - 1950s


SURREALISM: rising from the ashes of Dada's inevitable self-destruction, Surrealism as a movement was announced in Paris in 1924 with the publication of the 1st Surrealist Manifesto by poet Andre Breton.


SURREALISM: originated in Europe and quickly spread to other parts of the world.


SURREALISM: was a revolution of the mind, of writing, of painting, of art, of politics.


SURREALISTS, like the DADA, SURREALISTS rejected traditions of the status quo, rational culture and bourgeois values.

--They were interested in the fragmented, absurd, dynamism of the modern world and brought it into their art.


SURREALISTS believed that imagination was most exciting and live when it was the expression of unconscious, nonlogical sensations and inspirations.


SURREALISTS completely dismantled the long-held belief in the idea of the linear narrative which assumes that stories (history being one of them) have a beginning middle and end.


--In its place, they put the collision of unrelated objects and delighted in the uncanny poetry of fragments put back together to form wildly associative collages and montages.


--In addition to Albert Einstein's theories of relativity, the other major theoretical influence on the SURREALISTS was Sigmund Freud's theories of the subconscious and of the significance of dreams.


--Freud's creation of psychoanalysis and all of his ideas relating to the unconscious and the irrational were fundamental to all aspects of SURREALISM.


There were two directions in SURREALISM:

1) AUTOMATISM: a kind of dictation of thought without control of the rational mind. Automatism produced  automatic writing and painting, the results of which were close to abstraction, but some recognizable images are present.


2) SUPER REALISM, or NATURALISTIC Surrealism, a kind of magic realism characterized by meticulous detail, recognizable scenes and objects which are taken out of their natural context, distorted and re combined in fantastic ways as if they had come from a dream.


--This wing of surrealism attempted to use images of the subconscious, defined by Sigmund Freud as uncontrolled by conscious reason.


Major SURREALISTS exhibitions occurred through the 1920s and in Paris in 1938, 1947 and 1959. But by the 1950s SURREALISM'S force was pretty much done for as a modern movement.

Thanks for your interest in learning.