For Exam 1

Tuesday June 7
CSUSM Summer 2005

 

REALISM:  this term means the portrayal of things as they are seen, as they appear in reality without embellishment or interpretation.

 

REALISM: it may also refer to the portrayal of the everyday rather than the idealized or the beautiful.

 

NATIVE ART: A work of native art is not made to be merely seen. Native art does not mirror or reflect life; it is seen by the people who make it as helping to create life. Native art is not based on observation; it tries to connect processes. (power) The power of nature invoked, contact, visible and invisible forces.

 

NATIVE ART: A work of native art is not made to be merely seen. Native art does not mirror or reflect life; it is seen by the people who make it as helping to create life. Native art is not based on observation; it tries to connect processes. (power) The power of nature invoked, contact, visible and invisible forces.

 

SOCIALIZED VISION: The process of forming visual habits and patterns which are influenced by the culture one lives in.

 

REPRESENTATION: describes, depicts, portrays, imagines through language, pictures, images, gestures, actions etc.

 

CULTURE:  can be defined as the shared pattern of customs ideas, beliefs, images and language that unite a group..

 

CULTURE: includes more than just the arts. It ranges from aspects of Eveready life, clothes and entertainment, for example: to value systems, moral behavior and religious beliefs. A nation, an ethnic group, a religious community, even if is spread out, can have a culture of its own. Two cultures might share concerns and yet express them differently. Cultures can exist within cultures.

 

LANGUAGE: is a set of signs that are organized to represent an idea.

example: a stoplight is a sign that is part of a the language of traffic control

Note: however, signs can change meaning, meaning is not fixed.

 

SIGNS: are anything can signify or represent an idea. signs are not just words, but can include objects gestures, actions, sounds, words.

 

SIGNS: are culturally relative, what they mean in the context of a particular culture.

 

SIGNS: are culturally relative, what they mean in the context of a particular culture.

 

ICON: Greek, meaning image or likeness. Icons reflect a culture's basic values, myths and history.

 

ICON: The term icon traditionally was associated with a culture's religious images.

Today it is not primarily associated with religious images, popular art and fine art images can be considered as icons insofar as their appearance in the mass media shapes and reflects our culture's basic values.

 

MYTH: is a cultural message. This message is conveyed through representations. is used to understand the myth. The myths get distributed in the culture.

 

MYTH: in contemporary usage, the word myth usually means a lie or a fable, something that is not true, something unscientific.

 

MYTH: A myth may or may not be true. Truth or falsity does not matter. What matters is that you are aware that a message is being conveyed and that you can read it.

 

MYTH In relation to the transmission of culture myth does not mean a lie.

A culture's myth inevitably gives an explanation of some aspect of the culture.

--Every culture has its myths.

 

VISUAL LITERACY: to be visually literate you learn the visual language of culture by learning such aspects as the forms of representations and realism, signs, icons, color symbolism, mass media images and all the  visual elements that culture invents.

 

REPRESENTATION: Three theories:

1) REFLECTIVE: The reflective theory proposes that meaning exists in the object that is represented.

2) INTENTIONAL: The author or artist imposes his or her meaning in the language of the art. Intentional representation holds that the artist's intention is the only meaning of the work. It is not ambiguous. (like a  lot contemporary art). This term is an older term, not used much today.

3) CONSTRUCTIVE: Is the opposite of reflective; The objects that are represented

do not have any intrinsic meaning. The meaning they have in the representation is constructed from the culture and from personal experience.

--There are as many meanings as there are people who experience the art. 

--But through a set of codes or language, we construct shared meanings.

 

Example of CONSTRUCTIVE: Blue jeans, what meaning can be constructed from blue jeans. They are a sign of casual lifestyle, macho, sexy, grung (when torn up). The meaning is constructed through the set of cultural codes that have come to be associated with blue jeans.

 

TWO WAYS TO INTERPRET:

DENOTATION:  is a physical description or representation of an object.

CONNOTATION:  when you are looking at a representation, the connotative meaning involves what possible meanings are represented.

 

Example Denotation and Connotation

Denotation: the painting is of fabrics spread across a table top, done in warm colors.

Denotation: abundant, expensive fabric is a sign of wealth, the connotative meaning is gotten from observing and reading the cultural codes.

 

IMAGE: An image is a sight which has been recreated or reproduced.

 

PERSPECTIVE: The method in art of creating an impression of spatial depth, creating the illusion of three dimension on a two-dimensional surface.

 

PERSPECTIVE: arranges the ideal view in which the viewer is at the center of the world.

Two kinds of perspective:

 

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE: involves a system of lines that converge at “vanishing points”—those places in the distance at which objects seem to disappear.  The lines are diagonals, based on the principle that two parallel lines (reminiscent of railroad tracks) will appear to get closer together as they go off into the distance and to meet eventually at the vanishing point.

 

ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE: involves making objects off in the distance less distinct, less in focus, in imitation of the eye's difficulty in seeing details accurately at distances.

 

Two forms of representation that replaced perspective:

 

1) IMPRESSIONISM: involved with depicting the fluctuating, fugitive views we have of reality there is no center of the world in impressionism

 

2) CUBISM: proposes not a single point of ideal perspective, but a multiplicity of views of a scene.

 

AVANT-GARDE: embodies the Western myth of individualism. Avant-garde literally means "advance guard", the scouting party in a military campaign that explores the unkown territory ahead of the main body of troops. Artists in the role of

 

AVANT-GARDE, on the front lines of exploration, vision, political views, art itself. The tradition of the avant-garde continues today, from the 19th century when it was first used to describe artists activities and experimentation.

 

Related terms:

pictograph

aesthetics

epic

Culture

Story

Allegory

myth

legend

folklore

oral culture

literate culture

triun brain

museum

hyroglyps

figure of speech
______________________________________

 

NOTE: The following terms/definitions/concepts are not found in the book. However, you will need to know them.

 

PREHISTORY:  the study of history before written records.We construct our histories from several different sources

 

GEOLOGY:  earth is about 4.5 billion years old. The study of geology is a study of the geological formations of the earth.

 

PALEONTOLOGY:  study of fossil remains, describes earth's earliest living creatures through the study of fossilized remains.

 

ANTHROPOLOGY anthropologists study human biology, society and culture in times and places around the globe.

 

ARCHEOLOGY: uncover, analyze and interpret the material remains of past societies.

 

ETHNOGRAPHY: (cultural anthropologists)  study surviving pre-literate societies.

 

ART HISTORIANS: study the history of art through artifacts.

 

PALEOLITHIC ("Old Stone Age") Culture

ca. 5 million - 10,000 B.C.

 

Between 2 and 3 million years ago

HOMINID Proto humans who evolved into

Australopithecus who flourished for some three million years with verylittle change.

 

HOMINID: any of a family of bipedal primate mammals, including modern humans and their ancestors, the earliest of which is Australopithecus

--they were pack animals, hunter gatherers.

 

HOMO HABILIS: means tool making humans

--Homo Habilis fashioned stone and bone tools to serve specific purposes.

--tool making represents the being of culture, which in its most basic sense

proceeds from the manipulation of nature.

 

1.7 Million years ago

HOMO ERECTUS: (upright human)

--was making tools that were more varied and efficient than those used by earlier humans.

HOMO ERECTUS

--distinguished from earlier hominids by their larger brain size and mental capacity which included THE MAKING OF

--hand axes, cleavers, chisels, and a wide variety of choppers.

--fire too became an important part of the culture of human kind, safety warmth, cooking

 

100,000 years ago

HOMO SAPIENS meaning sentient, conscious, thinking humans

--who are characterized by memory and foresight,

--allowing them to be aware of their mortality, possibly fearing the dead

and thinking of life after death.

--evidence shows that they ritualized the burial of their dead,

placing such objects as flowers, tools and weapons

--this evidence of self-conscious, symbol-making humans

known as HOMO SAPIENS

--Thus Homo Sapiens developed symbol systems to objectify their experience and to transmit patterns of culture for use in future generations.

--Homo Sapiens have developed symbol systems that enable them to transmit culture.

 

CULTURE; Thus, in the fullest sense, culture requires both the manipulation of nature and the formulation of a symbolic Language for its transmission.

 

CULTURE:  can be defined as the shared pattern of customs ideas, beliefs, images and language that unite a group.

 

MESOLITHIC

Transitional Phase at 10,000 B.C.E

--Between 10,000  and 8000, B.C.E., hunters and gatherers became farmers

and food producers.

--From this development the New Stone Age occurred, called Neolithic

or "New Stone Age".

 

NEOLITHIC (New Stone Age) Culture

8000 - 2500 B.C.E.

ú--very new dynamic phase in human culture

--Food production enabled groups of people to settle in one place,

--to raise crops such as wheat and barely,

--to build permanent shelters

--and establish farming communities.

--Neolithic folk domesticated wild animals. Cattle, goats, pigs, sheep

 

MEGALITHS: means "great stone". Stonehenge is an example of a megalith.

 

Birth of Civilization Urban life

Mesopotamian culture 3500-612

Egyptian Kingdoms 3200-1400

Minoans 2500-1400

CUNEIFORM: first form of writing invented by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia around 3200 B.C.E. cuneiform is a pictographic (see below) form of writing.

 

PICTOGRAPHS a pictorial symbol that makes up humankind's earliest systems of writing.

--by 1900 B.C.E these marks were transformed into wedge-shaped signs comprising a cuneiform script.

 

CLASSICAL AGE

500 B.C. - 500 A.D.

 

AD 500 - 1500

MIDDLE AGES (sometime refered to as the Dark Ages)

 

1300 - 1600

RENAISSANCE: Means rebirth, revival.

 

1400 - 1700

AGE OF DISCOVERY, AGE OF REASON

 

1700 - 1900

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

ROCOCO 1710 - 1750

NEOCLASSICISM 1750 - 1800

ROMANTICISM 1800 - 1850

 

2000 (20TH CENTURY)

Information Age


________________________________________________

 

Classical Art of Greece

TIME-BASED ART: art that involves actions performed over time, such as dance, theater, music and most importantly, rituals and celebrations.

 

RITUAL: the ceremonial act; the prescribed order of actions carried out to complete a ceremony.

 

STATIC ART: art that does not have time as one of its elements. Static art generally refers to painting, drawing, printmaking, photography.

 

MYTH: is a cultural message. This message is conveyed through representations, which are used to understand the myth. The myths get distributed in the culture.

 

MYTH:  a story that explains  the workings of nature, the origins of life, and other phenomena; ususally associated with religious ritual or derived from the spoken part of such ritual

 

AGORA: meeting place in a city Greek City.

 

SCULPTURE: objects produced in the round, possessing volume and interacting with real space.

 

The sense of realism in Greek art thus had two governing principles:

1 ) nature has a form and and order invisible to the eye (geometry),

2) nature has a form and an order visuble to the eye (naturalism)

 

Plato's theory of Knowledge:

Two levels of reality,

1) one consisting of constantly changing particulars available to our senses (naturalism).  

2) the other consisting of eternal truths understood by way of the intellect (geometry).

 

ALLEGORY: a symbolic representation. The use of characters or events to represent ideas or principles in a story, play, or picture.

 

EPIC:  a long narrative poem that recounts the deeds of a legendary or historical hero in his quest for meaning or identity.

 

Gothic Middle ages

Heart of the the Gothic Era:

1170 - 1280

 

NARRATIVE:  Story, telling a story, the art, technique, or pocess of narrating.

 

ICON: Greek, meaning image or likeness. Icons reflect a culture's basic values, myths and history.

--Medieval idea that all material things, from rocks to animals to human beings, are reflections images of the presnece of God.

 

SYMBOL: represents something elese by association, resemblance, or or convention, esp. a material object representing something invisible

FUNDAMENTAL MYTH:

--the spiritual importance of each human person.

--this is reflected in the faces: detatched, selfless, spiritual;

Quote:

Saint Thomas Aquinas "A single person is more valuable than the entire material universe", the person is a kind of "spiritual universe".

--reveolutionary sense of the dignity of human labor as well as to a radical openess to technology uknown to any ancient culture.

Important note

--During the Middle ages a number of technological innovations and improvements were intordueced: crop rotation , the windmill, the wheelbarrow.

________________________________________________
 

AD 1300 - 1600

RENAISSANCE

 

RENAISSANCE: the word "Renaissance" is a French term first coined in the 19th century to describe the intellectual and artist revival, inspired by a renewed study of Classical (Greek) literature and art, which began in itally in the early 14th century and reached its culmination in the early 16th century. During this time the renaissance spread to other parts of Europe.

 

REALISM:  this term means the portrayal of things as they are seen, as they appear in reality without embellishment or interpretation.

 

REALISM: it may also refer to the portrayal of the everyday rather than the idealized or the beautiful.

 

REPRESENTATION: describes, depicts, portrays, imagines through language, pictures, images, gestures, actions etc.

 

PERSPECTIVE: the method in art of creating an impression of spatial depth, creating the illusion of three dimension on a two-dimensional surface.

 

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE:  involves a system of lines that converge at vanishing points at those places in the distancy at which objects seem to disappear.  The lines are diagonals, based on the principle that two parallel lines (reminiscent of railroad tracks) will appear to get closer together as they go off into the distance and to meet eventually at the vanishing point.

 

ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE: invovles making objects off in the distance less distinct, less in focus, in imitation of the eye's difficulty in seeing details accurately at distances.

 

PATRONAGE: the encouragement and support, often financial of artist and craftspeople

 

EXPLODED DRAWING: Draws each part of the subject separated out slightly from its neighbor.

 

CREATIVE SUBJECTIVITY:   the artist's own experience and perception of the world is where creativity comes from, not divine inspiration from God or from copying nature faithfully as realistically as possible.

 

SUBJECTIVITY: the presence of the individual's awareness of self

 

WOODCUT: a relief print made from a block of mediu-soft wood. (the design is made by carving away parts of the wood and what is left is in relief and is what is printed.)

 

PRINT: The transfer of a master design from wood or metal on to paper (usually), the number of impressions to be pulled depending the resiliance of the plate or block.

 

Fine Art and Popular art

--The ability to reproduce an image and make multiple copies resulted in a distinction being made between fine art and popular art.

--Prints are the first forms of mass media, made through mechanical means.

--Prints make repeatable scientific illustrations, mass entertainment, media information and popular art.

 

FINE ART: the promotion of fine art (painting, sculpture, architecture) rather than applied, or decrative arts (decoration, printing, weaving, ceramics, woodcraft, etc.).

--art which is generally regarded as more refined, more “cultured” and is made for consumption by the upper closs.

 

POPULAR ART: art which is typically made by means of mass media, (machines), which produce prints, photographs, newspapers, magazines, print reproductions of fine art. Popular art is typically made for and consumed by the masses, specifically, the lower class.
________________________________________________

 

BAROQUE: ornate, extravagant, grandiose.

CAMERA OBSCURA: means dark room.  A small hole in a box acts as a kind of natural lens by producing an upside-down image on the side of the box opposite the hole.

 

ROMANTICISM: a movement in the early 19th century culture against earlier rationalism, Classicism and mechanism. It sought to elevate the fantastic, the sublime and the pleasurable. It asserts the primacy of the individual's experience and the self-conscious isolation of the artist after the fall of patronage.

 

ROMANTICISM Essentially a revolt against the increasing mechanization and industrialization of life and the control the state and employers had over the workers.

 

ROMANTICISM: an idealization of nature, picturesque, love of nostalgia mystery and drama.

--by the early 19th century it had been broadend to include an enthusiasm and awe of nature

--a political support for liberty, and opposition to and fear of, industrialism

--an interest in the exotic and primitive, nationalism; and a dissatisfaction with life and a desire a new means of artist expression.

 

IMAGINATION: the subjectivity of the artist takes on an almost sacred character. The imagination creates a sense of newness and liberation to the artist's soul.

--the term was coined in the early 19th century by the French poet and critic Charles Baudelaire, who used it to describe the Romantic artist at the "center of the world".

--the romantic revolt against the bureaucracies of the state and industrialism involved the artist as individual, alone expressing his or her private experience.

 

LUDITE: any of a group of British workers who  between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed labor-saving textile machinery that they thought would diminish employment. (2). One who opposes technical or technological change. (After Ned Ludd, an English laborer supposed to have destroyed textile machinery around 1779,